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A GRAMMAR 



KASHMIRI LANGUAGE. 



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A GRAMMAR --^7-!^^.- 



KASHMIRI LANGUAGE, 



AS SPOKEN IN THE 



VALLEY OF KASHMIR, NORTH INDIA. 



BY THE 



REV. T. R. WADE, B.D., M.R.A.S., 

\ 

OF THE CHURCH MISSIONAUY SOOIKTY. 



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY 
DR. ROBERT GUST. 



' . * » I. aP^ 



LONDON: 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

NORTHUMBEULAND AVENUE, CHARING CROSS. W.C; 

1888. 

L 3 

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THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

714186A 

ASTOR. LENOX AND 

TILDEN FOUNDATIONS 

R 1934 L 



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PREFACE 



The following pages have been compiled from notes 
which I made whilst labouring as a missionary of the 
Church Missionary Society for some years in Kashnur ; 
and they are now published in the hope that, however 
imperfect, they may be of some use to the present and 
future missionwies in the country of Kashmir, and to the 
many tourists who yearly visit it, and also that they 
may possibly serve as some help towards a better, larger, 
and more critical grammar of the language. 

The Vale of Kashmir, or Kashmir Proper, situated 

to the north of the Punjab, is of an irregular oval 

shape, elevated a little over five thousand feet above the 

sea-level, generally sloping from south-east to north-west, 

about eighty miles long, and from twenty to twenty-five 

broad, containing an area of something less than two 

csjthousand square miles. It is entirely surrounded by 

^inountains, which rise, on the north-east side, to about 

iif eighteen thousand feet. In latitude, Kashmir corresponds 

'"^ nearly with Peshawar, Baghdad, and Damascus, in Asia ; 

~* with Fez, in Morocco, in Africa ; and with South Caro- 

^^ lina, in America ; but, on account of its situation and 

*^ altitude, it possesses a climate which can compare most 

a 3 



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VI PREFACE. 

favourably with any of these. Speaking generally, I 
should say it is a little colder in winter and a little 
hotter in summer, but otherwise much like the climate 
of England, and very healthy.* 

The people are, in size and in feature, one of the 
finest races on the whole continent of India, and are 
capable of the highest mental training. The face of the 
Kashmiri, especially of the Kashmiri Brahman, is of 
the pure High-Ayran type ; the peasantry are generally 
good-looking, robust, and of great muscular power. 

The population of Kashmir, according to the census 
of the Jummoo and Kashmir territories tot 1873, was — 
Hindus, 61,132 ; Muhammadans, 427,488 ; sundry castes, 
3226 ; total, 491,846. 

The Kashmiri language is a descendant of one of 
the ancient Prakrit dialects. As might be expected 
from a knowledge of the history of the country, modern 
Kashmiri has imported a large number of Persian and 
Arabic words ; some have been borrowed from the Tibeto- 
Burman and Altaic languages on the north and north- 
east, and an ever-increasing number of words are now 
being introduced from Punjabi and Hindustani. I have 
given some idea of the number of these words in Kashmiri 
at page 109 of this Grammar. 

* " As regards vegetation and climate, it (Easihrnir) somewhat re- 
sembles the mildest parts of the south o^ ^ngland" ("Lahore to Yar- 
kand," p. 33, by Dr. 0-. Henderson and A. O. Hume, Esq.). Speaking of the 
mountains of Kashmir, Dr. Henderson says, ** I have seen a man walking 
regularly his thirty miles a day over difficult ground, wha, on starting, 
two months before, had to ride, or get carried, two-thirds of every march. 
The remarkable thing is that even a person of delicate health does not 
suffer from the exposure, and one never by any chance catches a cold, at 
least in the mountains beyond Kashmir, where the climate is exceedingly 
dry " (page 35). 



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PREFACE. Vll 



There being several dialects spoken m the valley, and 
the vast majority of the people being ^tirely tlneducated, 
it will be easily understood how diffilcttlt was the work of 
compiling this Grammar. Different persolis would pro- 
nounce the same word differently, and would not spell it 
always in the Same wdy, and there wata no written autho- 
rity to which to appeal. 

The Muhammadl^ns, who form a very large majority 
of the population of Kashmir, use many more Persian 
and Arabic words than the Hindus; and an increasing 
number of those who live in the large cities^— the mer- 
chants and traders and others, who come most in contact 
with visitors and their servants — can speak Hindustani ; 
and some few can make themselves understood in English. 
There is at present a great desire on the part of many 
young men, pundits especially, in Srinagar to acquire 
English, and some of them have made considerable pro- 
gress in learning it. The Brahman Hindus, and tlie 
Jotish Hindus, who are engaged in various offices of their 
religion, use very few Persian and Arabic words, and so 
with their wives and families ; whilst many of the Karhun 
Hindus, especially those who are writers, are well able to 
speak and write Persian. Indeed, the court language of 
Kashmir for several centuries, under the Moghuls, the 
Pathans, and even the Sikhs, has been and is Persian. 

Kashmiri is closely allied to the Pahari, or hill dia- 
lects, spoken in the districts bordering on Kashmir ; as 
Kishtwari, Padari, Bhadaruatri, Eambani, etc. ; and 
through these a connection can be easily traced with 
Dogri, Punjabi, and Hindustaoi. 

The proverbs in this Grammar have been taken from 
a collection I myself made when residing in Kashmir, 



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Vlll PREFACE. 

and also from the ** Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs and 
Sayings," by the Eev. J. Hinton Knowles. 

As T have carried this work through the press whilst 
in England, and was therefore unable to get assistance 
from any pandit or munshi who knew Kashmiri, and had 
other and pressing engagements on hand at the same 
time, I must crave the considerate indulgence of the 
student for any mistakes which he may find. 



T. EUSSELL WADE. 



Belmont Pabe, Lee, 
SepUniber, 1888, 



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INTRODUCTION. 



The Kashmiri is a separate and distinct language of the 
Indie branch of the great Indo-European or Aryan family 
of languages, which extends from India to the Atlantic 
Ocean. It is alluded to by name by Marco Paolo and 
Ab-ul-Fazal. The term "Kashmiri," as a language, is 
held to include several dialects spoken in the adjacent 
hills, but their variations in phonetics, structure, and 
word-store, have not yet been scientifically analyzed. 
There is a special written character, akin to though 
distinct from the Nagari. 

A G-ramraar and proper Texts have long been lin- 
guistic desiderata. In my "Modern Languages of the East 
Indies" (Trubner: 1878) I drew attention to this fact, 
and it is to me a great satisfaction that the Rev. T. R. 
Wade, a missionary of the Church Missionary Society, 
during his official residence in the valley, has found 
leisure to compile the Grammar to which this is an Intro- 
duction. Mr. Wade has also supplied Texts in the form 
of translations of the Holy Scriptures. I commend this 
volume to the favourable notice of all Aryan scholars. 

ROBERT CUST, 

Honorary Secretary of the Royal Asiatic, 
Society and Member of the Translation 
Committee of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge. 
London, 

September, 1888. 



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CONTENTS 



The Deyanagabi and 6harada Alphabet? 

I. Lettebs. 

Consonants . . 
Vowels 

II. Nouns. 

I. Declension 

II. Declension 

III. Declension 

IV. Declension 
Case . . 
Gender 

. Number 

III. Adjegtiyes 

Comparison of 

IV. Pronouns . . 

Personal 

Possessive 

Demonstrative 

Reflexive 

Relative 

Interrogative 

Indefinite . 

Distributive . 

Adjective 

Compound 

Intensive 

V. Verbs ".. 

Conjugation . 
Intransitive . 



PAGR 

2 

5 

8 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
16 
18 

19 
21 

22 
23 
24 
29 
31 
32 
33 
34 
34 
35 
35 
36 

36 
38 
43 



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CONTENTS. 



i II AFTER 

V. \ EUBS— continued. 
Transitive . . 
Causative . . 
Passive 

Pronominal Affixes 
Compound . . 
Nominals 

Formation of Tenses 
Irregular 

VI. Indeclinable Words. 
Adverbs 
Ptepositions . . 
Conjunctions 
Interjections.. 

VII. Numbers. 

Cardinals 

Ordinals 

Aggregative or Collective 

Fractional . . 

Divisions of Time . . 

VIII. Derivation of Words . . 
Prefixes 

Affixes — Derivative Noims 
Derivative Adjectives 
Derivative Verbs 
Compound Words . . 

IX. Syntax. 

Order of Words in a Sentence 
Substitutes for the Article. . 
Nouns 

Case . . . . . . 

Adjectives 

Pronouns . . . . 

Verbs— Use and Application of the Tenses 

Adverbs 

Prepositions . . 
Conjunctions . . 

Interjections 

Persian in Kashmiri 

X. Sentences— English and Kashmiri . . 



54 
65 
66 
70 
85 
87 
88 
92 

93 

96 

99 

100 

101 
104 
104 
105 
106 

109 
110 
111 
113 
113 
114 

116 
117 
117 
118 
130 
131 
138 
151 
151 
152 
153 
153 

156 



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THE DEVANAGAEI AND SHAEADA ALPHABETS. 

Vowels. 



Drv-ahIgari. 


ShIbada. 


EmOUSH; 


DsVANXQABr. 


ShIbada. 


English. 


iS 


•q 


a 


^^{mw 


■9Vr« 


aktabh, 


9un. 


«9J 


■s 


a 


^w^ 


•95?^ 


Anand, 

1 


Anand, 

Troper name.] 


^ 


jt 


i 


?v^ 


4»rf 


Imbhari 


, Imbhari. 

[Proper name.] 


i 


• • 


1 


f^^ 


iTfl' 


Ishvara, 


God. 


^ 

5 


>s 


u 


^t 


4ri 


Urdu, 


Urdu, 


( 


«» 


u 


i'jj^ 


«j?^ 


ungan, 


cry of fox. 


; R 


c 


ri 


w^ 


c^ 


reth, 


month. 


^ 


f» 


e 


<wi 


nv 


ek, 


one. 


^ 


t^ 


ai 


>^ 


i^n* 


aisa, 


80. 


%1 


9 


o 


%I1 


%» 


on, 


blind. 


« 


T^ 


au 


i^? 


«^55JP 


Ausbad 


Aushad. 

[rroper nacpe.] 



n 

SI 



Consonants. 



* 


k 


^f\^ 


^Ar 


nj 


kh 


(9^ 


fW 


•J 


g 


«35J^ 


t3^*f 


^ 


gli 


fll 


*as 


ff 


n 


9J3I- 


f^ 


n 


ch(<«) 


vm 


II^O 


« 


chh 


OT* 


r* 


^ 


J 


HI'* 


?»^ 


fO 


jh 


?JT^ 


«9 


T^ 


n 


sn^*' ^'f^ 



Karima, Karma, 

[Proper lame.] 

kbar, donkey. 
gunas, snake. 
gbrat", millstone. 

t (hollov) of a mortar 

Kaub yjQj. pounding rice. 

(cL)tsatb, disdjple. 
cbban, carjpenter. 
jan, ' xoell. 
jban, world. 
Narun, Ndrun. 

[Prop* r name - 



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CoNSONAirrs — continued. 



DbvabIoabi. ShIrada. 


Engush. 


DSYAMlGABt. 


ShIrada. 


English. 


z 


r 


t 


V^ 


rwf 


tas, sound. 


? . 


o 


th 


^^ 


^•SSiT 


thaknr, idol. 


7 


« 


d 


f^Vi 


«5»rw 


damdam, drum. 


^ 


<ii 


dh 


'^ 


if»»j 


dhaDg, stick. 


r» 


««f 


n 


m\ 


1^9 


anud, cook. 


*» 


3 


t 


wn 


T3 


tota, parrot. 


« 


Q 


th 


vm 


^ 


tham, p-op. 


V 

5J 




d 

dh 

n 






nag, serpent. 


^ 
* 


V 

« 


P 
ph 






pamposb, water lily 
pheran, garment. 


9 


g 


b 


311^5! 


tjiji'"' 


batij, duck. 


H 


« 


bh 


•ffll 


«T 


bhata, /ooei. 


W 


N 


m 


??$>3 




mahol, pestle. 


^ 


u 


y 


in? 


V> 


yar, friend. 


^ 


9 


r 


?« 


^ 


ras, ywtce. 


^ 
^ 




1 

W, V 


W9 




Lar, Xdr. 

[Name of district.] 
wan, wood. 


V? 


1! 


i,Bh 


W^ 


*r?9 


shal, jackal. 


^ 
? 




sh 

s 






ShabhSn, /S%a5^n. 

[Name of month.] 

Bultan, sultan. 


^ 


« 


h 


^fasa 


^'V? 


haput, hear. 



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KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTER I. 



LETTERS. 



1. Kashmiri is written in tlie Dewanagari, Sharada (a 
modified form of Dewanagari), and Persian characters. In 
writing tlie language in the Roman characters, the ordinary 
Roman-Urdu system will be followed, with some few addi- 
tional vowels to represent sounds peculiar to Kashmiri. 

The Alphabet. 
1. Consonants, 



Lkttebs. 



B b 

Ch ch 
B d 



Pbonunciation. 



Arabic r,, a peculiar gut- 
tural sound 



As in English 

Persian '^, as in " church " 
Sanskrit ^, more dental than 
the English d 



Examples. 



Represented by an ' 
before its vowel ; as, 
'aql, wisdom ; 'ilm, 
science ; 'umr, age 

Bar, a door 

Chobur, young 
Dod, jpain 



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KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



Letters. 


Pronunciation. 


Examples. 


I) 


d 


Sanskrit |f, tongiie well 
turned up towards roof of 
mouth when pronouncing 
it 

As in English 

As in English (always hard) 


Dora, a rope 


F 
G 


f 
g 


Farsh, a carpet 
Gagur, a rat 


Gh 


gk 


Arabic c, a strong guttural 
As in English 


Ghusal, a hath 


H 


h 


Host, an elepliant 


H 


h 


Arabic ^, a strong aspirate, 


Eahlm, merciful 


J 
K 


J 
k 


uttered by compressing 
lower muscles of throat 

As in English 

As in English 


J&n, good 
Kul, a tree 


Kh kh 


Arabic r% a strong guttural 


Khuda, Qod 


L 
M 

N 

P 


1 

m 

n 

? 

P 


As in English 
As in English 
As in English 
n nasal 
As in English 


Lar, a house 
Mol, father 
Nun, salt 
Niam, mortar 
Posh, a flower 


Q 
It 


q 

r 


Arabic /J, pronounced from 

lower muscles of throat 
Pronounced very distinctly 


Banduq, a gun 
Eun, husband 


K 

S 


r 

s 


Urdu J, the tip of tongue 
turned well up towards 
roof of mouth 

As in English 


Mur, myrrh 
Son, gold 


S 


s 


Arabic /^, much like 
English 8w 


Qasd, intention 



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LETTERS. 





PBONXJirCIA.TlON. 


EXAMPLBB. 


s 


8 


Arabic 4^» mucli like Eng- 


Sawab, future reward 






lish «, with a little of th in it 


of virtue 


Sli 


bIi 


Arabic ^_^, as in English 


Shur, a child 


T 


t 


Sanskrit % very soft and 
dental 


Tot, beloved 


T 


t 


Sanskrit 7, tongue well 


Thokar, a blow 






turned up towards roof of 








mouth 




Ts 


ts 


Sanskrit i|, <jA> but pro- 
nounced t8 in Kashmiri 


Tsur, a thief 


T 


t 


Arabic Jb, harsher than t 


KhsA, a Utter 


V 


V 


As in English 


Vir, a wiUaw 


W 


w 


A little more of the sound of 
the V in it than in English 


Wonun, to weave 


Y 


7 


As in English 


Yar, a friend 


Z 


z 


As in English 


Zun, the moon 


Z 


z 


Arabic /ji, a mixture of d, 
thj and w 


Khizar, name of a man 


Z 


z 


Arabic ji, much like tz 


Hifz, memory 


Z 


z 


Arabic u, much as z 


KS^az, paper 


Zh 


zh 


Persian j, like z in " azure " 


Pazhmurda, faded 



2. Of the above letters, B, Q, 5, S, T, Z, Z, \ are peculiar 
to Arabic; Zh, to Persian ; Ts, to Kashmiri; Gk, Kh, Z, Z, 
to Arabic and Persian ; T, D, R, are Indian ; P, Ci, and G, 
are Persian and Indian, but not Arabic ; and the remaining 
letters are common. Consequently, words containing any of 
the letters peculiar to Arabic must be from that language . 



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KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

words having Zh must be of Persian origin; those having 
Ts must be Kashmiri; those with Oh, Kh, Z, Z^ may be 
Arabic or Persian ; those with P, Oh, G, may be Persian or 
Indian; and words having any of the letters T, 2), JB, in 
them are of Indian origin. 

3. Of the thirteen letters peculiar to Ambic and Persian 
only one of them, Z, receives its particular pronunciation 
from the uneducated people in Kashmir. Oh is pronounced 
as O; H, as H; Kh, as K; S, S, as S; T, as T; and Z, Z, 
Z,Zh,SLaZ. 

Those who have studied Persian or Arabic are more 
particular in their pronunciation, and in writing these lan- 
guages the words are properly spelt. Also when Kashmiri 
is written in the Persian character, Persian and Arabic words 
are written correctly, and not as they are pronounced by the 
common people. The word for " God," for instance, in 
Persian is Khuda, but generally pronounced by the ordinary 
Kashmiri Kudd, yet always written in the Persian character, 

) Joi^, Khudd, 

2. Vowels. 



Letters. 


Pronukoiation. 


Examples. 


A 


a 


Short a, as in "woman," 
"adrift" 


Bar, a door 


A 


a 


Long a, as in " war," " father " 


Ar, mercy 


A 


^ 


Peculiar; a short a sound 
from the throat 


Zath, a rag 


E 


e 


Long e, as ea in "bear" or 
at in "fail" 


Her, a ladder 


E 


e 


Short 6, as in " met," " bet," 
"let" 


Mets, earth 


1 


i 


Short », as in " mill," " bill " 


Hil, Moater-grais 


I 


I 


Long », as in "machine," 
"police" 


Mil, tnJb 



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LETTERS. 



Lettbbs. 


Pronunciation. 


Examples. 








Long 0, as in " hole," " mole " 


Mol, father 


6 


6 


Short 0, as in " cot," *' hot " 


Vodur, an otter 





6 


Peculiar ; much like the Grer- 
man o 


Dor, heard 


u 


u 


Short ft, as in " pull," " bull " 


Gur, a horse 


tJ 


u 


Long u, as in "rule," "rude" 


Kur, a daughter 


tJ 


u 


Peculiar; a long a sound 
from the throat 


Tur, cold 



4. Of the above vowels, d, a, e, t, », o, u, u, are the same 
as those used in writing Hindustani in Boman characters, 
whilst a, e, 6, o, u, are peculiar to Kashmiri. In some few 
Roman-Urdu books a is used to represent the C- with a fatha ; 

but this will not make a great difficulty, as the Kashmiri a 
is a short a sound from the throat, though not so guttural as 
the Arabic c^. 

The vowels, as given by Dr. Forbes in his " Hindustani 
Grammar," are — 

English words : fall, fun, fail, feel, fin, foal, fool, foot. 

Boman-Urdu : fal, fan, fel, fll, fin, fol, ful, fut. 

The letters e and 6 are simply the short sounds of these 
letters, as in "pet," "met," "not," "rot." The o is almost 
identical with the German o, but the a and the u can only 
be learned from a native, as there are no sounds like them 
in the English language. The a sound is very common, — it 
occurs in almost every sentence ; whilst there are not many 
words that have the peculiar u sound. 

5. The diphthongs ai and au will have the same sounds 
as in Eoman-Urdu. 

6. There are also two very short vowel-sounds in the 



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10 



eashmIrI grammar. 



langnage : A half u sound at the end of some words, par- 
ticularly those of the second declension of nouns. As this is 
almost imperceptible and difficult to represent, I omit it in 
this work. The other is a very short i sound, which will be 
represented by a small > in italics with a dot under it. It 
must be understood that this is much shorter than the short t, 
and is only just perceptible; still it is important; for in- 
stance, gur, or more correctly, gur*, is ** a horse," gw^^ horses. 



CHAPTER n. 

NOUNS. 

7. There are four declensions in Kashmiri; and generally 
nouns of the first two declensions are masculine, and those 
of the other two feminine. Nouns may be thus declined — 
I. Declension. 



Gabb. 


SlNGUf.AR. 


PlIJBATi. 


Nominative^ 






and > 


teur, a thief 


tsur, thieves 


Accusative 






Genitive 


tsura sund,* etc., of a 


teuran hund,* etc., of 




thief 


thieves 


Dative 


tsuras, to a thief 


teuran, to thievet 


Agentive 


teuran, by a thief 


teurau, by thieves 


Locative 


tsuras nish, near a thief 


teuran nish, near Meves 






[tsuras nishi, /rom d\ 






Ablative 




thief [house 
gara andara, from a 




teurau nishi, from 
thieves 


Vocative 


jhata,etc.,tsura,| 
|hat»,etc.,tsuro,| thief 


hata, etc., teurau, 
thieves 



* Sund and hund are inflected to agree with the objects possessed in 
gender and number (vide pars. 22, 23). 



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NOUNS. 



11 



8. When a noun of this declension ends in a vowel, h is 
added before the terminations -as, -an^ etc. ; as, sazd, punish- 
ment, aazdhaa, sazahan ; Mttsd, Mose», Musdhaa, etc. 

9. By adding a to a noun, the meaning becomes indefinite, 
as tsurd, any thief; by adding qi, the noun is rendered 
definite, as tsurqi, that partioiQar thief: qi here in Kashmlii 
answers to hi in Hindustani. 

10. Examples of nouns of this declension : Ndr, fire; bar, 
a door ; ddnd, an ox ; kalam, a pen ; d6, water ; kokqr, a fowl ; 
hata, or bhata, food ; garqy a house ; hdh^ vegetable ; goguj\ a 
turnip, gogajm ; gdzar, a carrot ; wez, a table. 

II. Declension. - 



Case. 


SiNGXJLAB. 


Pltjbal. 


NomA 






Ace, J 


gur, a horse 


gur>, horses 


Gen. 


guri sund, etc., of a horse 


gur^en hund, etc., of horses 


Dot. 


guris, to a horse 


garden, to horses 


Ag, 


gur», by a horse 


gur^au, by horses 


Loc. 


guris nish, near a horse 


gur^en nish, near horses 


Ah. 


guris nishi, from a horse 


guriau andara,/r(w» horses 


Voc. 


^hata,etc.,gur?o,j 


hata, etc., guriau, horses 



11. Nouns of this declension, in the nominative and accu- 
sative singular, have an almost imperceptible u sound after 
them ; thus, gfwr", a horse. 

12. The vowel a of nouns of this declension is changed in 
the plural and in the inflected forms into o or a ; as, boij a 
brother, plu, 6di, dat. sing, boyis ; tsong^ a lamp, plu. tjdngi, 
dat. sing, tjdngis ; khonkhy one who speaks through his nose. 



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12 



KASHMIBI GRAMMAR. 



plu. khimkhiy dat. sing, hhonhhis. U is sometimes changed 
into o, 0, or a ; as, hun, a dog, lumis ; Jcrur, a well, kroris ; hapit^ 
a bear, hdjpqtis, 

13. Examples of nouns of this declension: Edat^ an ele- 
phant; shur, a child; W, a tree; kohf a hunchback; jwrnaf, 
a monkey ; wagaw, wagawis, matting ; aatarand, a durrie (kind 
of carpet), sataranjis ; khar^ an ass ; saraf, a snake. 



III. Declension. 



Casb. 


Singular. 


Plural. 


Norn, \ 
Ace, J 


moj, a mother 


maji, majih, mothers 


Gen. 


maji hund, etc., of a 


maj^en hund, etc., of 




mother 


mothers 


Dat. 


maji, majih, to a mother 


maj^en, to mothers 


Ag. 


maji, majih, hy a mother 


maj^au, hy mothers 


Loc. 


maji nish, near a mother 


maj^en nish, near mothers 


Ab. 


maji nishi, from a mother 


majJau andara, from 
mothers 


Yoe, 


jhatai, etc., moj, 1 
^^hata, etc., mo^oi,} mother 


hatai, etc., maj^au, 




m^others 



14. The vowel o of nouns of this declension is always 
changed into d in the plural and in the inflected forms ; as, 
dor, a beard, plu. ddri; kor, the neck, kdri ; yor, a fir tree, 
ydri: u often into o; as, kur, a daughter, kori; lur, a stick, 
lori : and a into a ; as, gab, a sheep, gahi : though in poly- 
syllabic words the a remains; as, hahqr, a flower, hahqri ; 
dadqr, a cucumber, dadqri ; devi, a goddess, in the inflect, plu. 
makes deviyau ; zqt, a rag, makes plu. zachi. 



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NOUNS. 



13 



15. When emphasis is required, an h is always added to 
the forms ending in i ; as, '* To whom did you give this ? " 
Answer, Mdjih, ** To mother" 

16. Examples of nouns of this declension: Vor^ a small 
pot; toTy lateness; horn, work; hetar^ leprosy; vof, a ring; 
Aor, a bird (the Maind-Coracias Indica) ; zun^ the moon ; bun, 
the chinar tree (Platanus Orientalis), honi ; zur, a lampstand, 
zuri ; thur, an adze, thori. 



IV. Declension. 



Case. 


SlNGUT.AR. 


Plubal. 


NomA 
Ace. 


kit&b, a hook 


kitaba, hooks 


Gen. 


kitllbi hund, etc., of a 


kitaban hund, etc., of 




hook 


hooka 


Bat 


kitabi, kitabih, to a hook 


kitaban, to hooks 


Ag. 


kitabi, kitabih, hy a hook 


kitabau, hy hooka 


Loc. 


kitabi manz, in a hook 


kitaban manz, in hooka 


Ah. 


kitabi andara,/row a hook 


kitabau andara, /rom hooka 


Voc. 


hatai, etc., kitab, hook 


hatai. etc., kitabau, 
hooka 



17. The vowel o of nouns of this declension is changed 
into a ; as, gody a fish, gddiy gddan. 

18. Examples of nouns of this declension : /Sum, a small 
bridge; nazQr, sight; aaldm, peace, 'salutation; gunaa, a small 
snake found in Kashmir. 

19. Some nouns ending in t diflFer from the above example 
by adding a to the inflected forms and plural. Bat, night, 
is thus declined — 



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14 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



Case. 


Singular. 


Plural. 


Ace, 1 

Gen, 

BaU 

Ag. 

Voc, 


rat, night 

rots liund, etc., of night 

rots, to night 

rots, hy night 

hatai, etc., rat, night 


rots, nights 

rotsan hund, etc., of nighty 
rotsan, to nights 
rotsau, hy nights 
hatai, etc., rotsau, nights 



20. Vowel-changes. The vowel a of monosyllabic nouns 
is changed into b ; as, rat, rots. The a is changed into a ; as, 
nrmat, favour, plu. nirnqts; haqiqat, truth, plu. haqtqqts. 



Of Case. 

21. The Nominative and Accusative cases are always the 
same. They are the nouns without any distinguishing 
signs. 

22. The Genitive case may be expressed in four different 
ways : (1) by adding sund or hund, etc. ; (2) by adding uk, etc. ; 
(3) by adding un, etc. ; (4) by adding uv, etc. Sund, with 
its inflections, is used with nouns of the first and second 
declensions in the singular; hund, with its inflections, is 
joined to plural nouns only of the first and second declen- 
sions, and to singular and plural nouns of the third and 
fourth declensions; uk, with its inflections, is only used 
with inanimate nouns of the first and second declensions ; 
un, with its inflections, ^nly with proper names; and uv 
denotes "made of." Each of the forms sund, hund, uk^ un, 
and uv, always agrees with the object possessed in number 
and gender. 

23. They are thus declined — 



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NOUNS. 



15 



Singular. 


Plural. 




Feminine. 


Masculine. 


Feminine. 


sund 

hund 

uk 

un 

uv 


s^nz 

hanz 

Jich 

an 

av 


8and^ 

h^nd^ 

aW 

an^ 

av^ 


sanza 

h^nz^ 

achi 

g-ni 

avi 



24. Examples — 

Nechavis sund mol, the son's father. 

Nechavis sanz mof, the son's mother. 

Nechavis sqndi gur\ the son's horses. 

Nechavis sqnzq guri, the son's mares. 

Mdji hund khdmnd, the mother's husband. 

Mdji hanz Jcur, the mother's daughter. 

MdJi hqnd^ boi, the mother's brothers. 

Mdji hqnzq Jcori, the mother's daughters. 

Garuh mdliJc, the master of the house. 

Garqch malikin, the mistress of the house. 

GarqM t8dng\ the lamps of the house. 

Oarqchi Jcitdhq, the books of the house. 

Bdm Chandun garq^ the house of Eam Chand. 

Bdm Chandqn kitdh, the book of Kam Chand. 

Bdm Chandqn^ gur\ the horses of Eam Chand. 

Bdm Chandqni hori^ the daughters of Kam Chand. 

Sa^huv garq, a house of wood, a wooden house. 

Hachqv lur, a staff of wood, a wooden staff. 

Hachqv^ krdv\ sandals of wood, wooden sandals. 

Hachavi ddri, windows of wood, wooden windows. 

25. The Dative and Locative cases in each declension 



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16 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

have generally their singulars alike, and also their plurals ; 
the locative is distinguished from the dative by its prepo- 
sition. 

26. The Ablative case is always known by its governing 
preposition; it is mostly like the dative in the singular 
number, and the agentive in the plural. 

27. The Agentive case. In the first declension the agen- 
tive case singular is the same as the dative plural; in the 
second and third declensions the agentive singular is the 
same as the plural. It is the same also in the fourth declen- 
sion with those nouns which follow the declension of rat, 
but not with the others — those that follow the declension 
of kitdh. 

For further particulars on the cases of nouns, see Syntax, 
chapter ix. 



The Gender of Nouns. 

28. All nouns are either masculine or feminine. The 
gender of a noun is generally determined either by its signi- 
fication or its form. 

Those nouns relating to males are masculine ; as, Bdma, 
Eama (proper name of a man) ; Shankar, Shankar ; hddshdh, 
king ; khdmnd, husband ; nechu, son, boy. Those relating to 
females are feminine; as, FazU, Fazli (proper name of a 
woman) ; rdni, wife of a raja ; kolai, wife ; dshen, wife ; heni, 
daughter. 

29. The feminine is formed from the masculine by (1) a 
change of the last vowel, with sometimes a change also of 
the last consonant; (2) by adding certain affixes to the 
masculine noun. 

(1) The following are the principal vowel-changes : — 



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NOUNS. 



17 



f become o 
o\ 




ki al, a potter 
shal, a jackal 
mol, father 
bror, a tom-cat 
khar, an ass 


kroj, a female potter 
shoj, a female jackal 
moj, mother 
bror, a female cat 
khar or kharin, a female 


u 


•become a 


•' 


gagiir, a rat 
zor, a deaf man 
[ pot, a plank 


ass 

gagar, a female rat 
zar, a cZeo/ woman 
pat, a «maZ/ jp/anA; 



Examples of changes of consonants: FoZ masc, a ring, 
voz fern., a small ring for the finger ; wdtul, watul, a man of 
a low caste, wdtqj^ a female of the same caste ; hatuk^ a drake ; 
haiachy a dnck ; tang masc, a pear, tqnch fern. 

30. (2) The principal affixes are — 
-• ; as, gur, a horse, gur^, a mare.* 

-en or -in ; as, saruf masc., a snake, sarafen fem., some- 
times pronounced sarup and sarupin; honz, a boatman, 
hdnzeny a boatwoman ; host masc, an elephant, hosten 
fem. ; mazur masc, a coolie, muzren fem. 

'hdi ; as, dosU masc, a mason, dosilhdi fem.; ehhan masc, 
a carpenter, chhdnhdi or chhdnc^di fem. 

-^i : this affix is applied only to persons, denoting class, 
nation, or religion; as, Qujar masc, Qujaron^ fem.; 
Mmahndn masc, Musalmon^ fem. ; Pathdn masc, Pathon^ 
fem. ; Pundit masc, Punditdn^ fem. 

31. The gender is also sometimes marked by adding the 
words mol, father, and mcj, mother ; or nar, male, and mdda, 
female ; as, doda mol, a foster-father, doda moj, a foster-mother ; 
khana mol, a beloved son, khdna moj, a beloved daughter ; nar 
kotur^ a cock-pigeon, mdda kotur, a hen-pigeon. 

* In HindustaDi the feminine of larkd is larki; of dhohi, dhchin ; of 
kumhar, kumharan, or kumhdratd, 

C 



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18 KASHMIRi GRAMMAR. 

32. Many words are quite different in the masculine and 
feminine ; as, run, a husband, ashen, a wife ; nechu, a son, kur, 
a daughter ; dand, a bull, gau, a cow ; hat, a ram, gab, a ewe ; 
mahiniu, a man, zandnq, a woman; hoi, a brother, heni, a 
sister ; kdntur, a cock-sparrow, tsar, a hen-sparrow. 

33. When the same nouns are used in Hindustani and 
Kashmiri, they have generally the same gender; but there 
are some exceptions. 

(1) Nouns that are masculine in Hindustani and feminine 
in Kashmiri: kom, work, pronounced kom by the pundits; 
Ioshkar, an army ; saldm, peace ; mahal, palace. 

(2") Nouns that are feminine in Hindustani, but masculine 
in Kashmiri: Hzzat, honour; dua\ prayer; madad, help; mez, 
table; sazd, punishment; shdm, evening; mahahhat, love; 
farlf, praise ; najdt, salvation ; jdn, life ; ruh, spirit ; poshdk, 
clothing; hhurdk, food; y^Zd, book-cover ; handuk,gnn; diwdr, 
wall; 'arz, request; gharaz, object; quwat, strength; dawdy 
medicine. 



Number of Nouns. 

34. Bute L Nouns of the first declension are often the 
same in the nominative plural as in the singular, though in 
nouns of more than one syllable there is frequently a change 
in the last vowel: u is changed into a; as, gagur, a rat, 
plu. gagar ; hdput, a bear, plu. hdpat ; but when the affix -ur 
denotes trade, or wdld in Hindustani, then the u is changed 
into a ; as, kdndur, a baker, plu. kdndqr ; rangur, a dyer, plu. 
rangqr. 

Examples of nouns that have the nominative singular 
and plural the same : Ath, hand ; a^h, eye ; kwar, foot ; kan, 
ear; thar, back; dekh, forehead; yad, belly; khdr, a black- 
smith; mazur, a labourer; tsur, a thief; honz, a boatman; 
sats, a tailor ; dosil, a mason ; chhan, a carpenter. 



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ADJECTIVES. 19 

35. Bule IL All nouns of the second declension whicli 
end in the very short " sound, form their plural by adding 
the >, and often with the change of a vowel {vide par. 29) ; 
as, gur, a horse, plu. gur^ ; moly father, plu. tnoZJ; but 
hoiy brother, has plu. hoi. Sometimes a vowel is omitted in 
the plural; as, tior, a sheep, plu. tir^ ; tsion^ a pillar, plu. 
tsifp. 

36. Bule HI. Feminine nouns of the third and fourth 
declensioDS form their plurals generally by adding t and a 
respectively to the singulars, often with vowel-changes (vide 
par. 29).; as, gur\ a mare, plu. guri; sum^ a small bridge, plu. 
8afnq4 

A few nouns of the fourth declension form their plural 
by adding s, with a change of the vowel ; as, rat, night, plu. 
rots; nrmat, blessing, plu. ni'mqts. 



CHAPTER III. 



ADJECTIVES. 



37. Adjectives in Kashmiri are of two kinds — those that 
are declined to agree with their nouns in number, gender, 
and case ; and those that are not declined. 

38. The masculines of adjectives that are declined gene- 
rally follow the second declension of nouns, and the femi- 
nines the third declension. 

Example : Wozul, red, is thus declined — 



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20 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 





Singular. 


1 Plural 


. 


Case. 










Masculine. 


Feminine. 


1 

Masculine. 


Feminine. 


Nom.\ 










Ace. j 


wozul 


wozaj 


wozal^* 


wozaji 


Dat. 


wozalis 


wozaji 


wozal^en 


wozaj^'en 


Ag. 


wozal> 


wozaji 


wozal^au 


wozaj %u 


Loc. 


wozalis manz 


wozaji manz 


wozal^en manz 


wozaj'en 


Ah. 


wozalis nishi 


wozaji nishi 


wozalJau an- 


wozaj^au 


• 






dara 




Voc. 


wozalia 


wozaj 


wozalJ'au 


wozaj%u 



39. The feminine of adjectives is formed from the mascu- 
line according to the same rules as feminine nouns are formed 
from masculine nouns. 

Examples : (i.) Changes of vowels — 
o masc. becomes o in fem., as tot masc, beloved, tot fern. 



or, a 


» 


»» 


mot 


»> 


thick. 


mat 


a 


>» 


» 


hod 


»» 


^ig, 


had 


^— * 






viot 


9) 


fat. 


viet 


or, e 


>» 


>» 


\tidt 


» 


bitter. 


ti'et 


a 


»» 


»» 


Icdtsur 


» 


brown. 


katsar 


or, u 


»> 


» 


knr 


J» 


cruel. 


hiir 


or, a 


>» 


>» 


wozul 


J» 


red, 


wozaj 


t 


jt 


»» 


miot 


»» 


sweet, 


mit 
or met 



(ii.) Changes of consonants — 

d masc. becomes z in fem., as thod masc, high, tltaz fem. 

g ,, 99 d „ „ long „ lame, land „ 

k „ „ ch „ „ hok „ dry, hoch „ 

jsdt „ plow, sqta „ 

\m6t „ silly, mqtj „ 



( in mono- 



} 



t8 



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ADJECTIVES. 21 

40. The adjectives that are not declined are — 

(1) Those that have -lad as an affix, denoting possession; 
as, dod, pain, dodilady having pain, painful ; dlatalad, idle ; 
krodqfad, angry ; hetarilady having a disease of the skin. 

(2) Adjectives from other languages; as, sufed, white, 
sabz, green ; himdr, ill ; ArdZd, black. 

(3) Adjectives ending in a; as, hudq, old ; hdlq, young; 
ndkdrq, worthless. 

(4) The adjectives jdUy good ; yachh^ bad ; fn6t^d^ blunt ; 
sundary beautiful; &e(rd/, careless; behwdly one who stays at 
home ; nelradrduo, one who frequently goes out. 

41. Nouns or phrases in the inflected form are sometimes 
used with other nouns, and may then be regarded as adjec- 
lives, much as we say in English, "an iron safe," "a silk dress," 
•* a glass cup," etc. ; as, hdri tang^ a cowrie pear, i.e. a pear that 
costs a cowrie; muhari tmnt, an apple that costs a muhr; Hdpat 

• ydraz, Bear friendship (proverb) ; gahi huthi rdmahun, a sheep- 
faced wolf; hatah thul, a duck's egg, 

42. Kentsa is used to denote "rather" or "-ish" in English ; 
as, tsoh, sour ; kentsa tsok, rather sour, sourish. 

43. The nouns hana, a piece, hawdva, a whiff or puff, and 
moya, little, are constantly used after inflected nouns to 
denote a little; as, dhq hawdva, or dhq moya, a little water, 
hata hana, a little food. 

'han and -hun are also affixes to form diminutive nouns. 

Comparison of Adjectives, 

44. There are no inflections in Kashmlil or regular 
suffixes added to adjectives to denote the degrees of compari* 
son. The most common way of forming comparisons is by 
joining an adverb ; as, Uor^ more, very ; aitha, much, very, etc. , 
to the adjective : or by using the preposition khota, compared 
with, with the noun with which the comparison is made; 



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22 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

as, iJiod, high, Uor thod, higher (more high), sitha thod, 
highest (very high); dandy clever, tsor ddnd, more clever, 
sitha dandy most clever ; hod, great, yats hod^ greater (more 
great), aitha hod, greatest (most or very great) : Aftdha chhu 
zuni khota body The sun is greater than the moon (the snn is, 
compared with the moon, great) ; Yih gur chhu hkut, This horse 
is small; Tih gur chhu tsor loJcut, This horse is smaller; Yih 
gnr chhu aitha loJcut, This horse is very small ; Yih gur sdravai 
khota chhujohuty This horse is the smallest of all (this horse, 
compared with all, is small). The adverb nihdyat is also used 
with the adjective, especially by Muhammadans ; as, Yih kul 
chhu hami kuli khota nihdyat thod, This tree is very much 
higher than that tree; Fira khota chhu hejnroijdn (proverb). 
To be without a pir is better than to have a pir; Yua akd 
kheyi ta cheyi tq konai diyi, auh chhu jdn taaandi khota yua ani tq 
jama* kari (proverb), Any one who eats and drinks and gives to 
another is better than he who brings (gathers) and collects . 
(hoards). 



CHAPTEK IV. 

PRONOUNS. 

45. The firat and aecond peraona of the personal pronoun 
have but one form for the two genders ; they may be mascu- 
line or feminine, therefore, according to the gender of the 
nouns they represent. The genitive is inflected according 
to the gender and case of the noun possessed. The third 
peraon has a separate form for each gender in the singular, 
and for masculine and feminine in the plural nominative and 
accusative. 



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PRONOUNS. 



23 



46. 



•47. 



I. Personal Pronouns. 
First Person. 



Case. 


Singular. 


Plubal. 


Nora, 


bo, boh, I 


N 


Ace. 


me, meh, me 


> as, we and us 


Gen. 


mioD, etc., my 


son, etc., our 


Bat. 


me, meh, to me 


asi, asih, to us 


Ag. 


me, meh, by me 


asi, asih, by us 


Loc. 


me manz, or meh manz, 


asi manz, or asih manz, 




in me 


in us 


Ab. 


me, meh andara, /rom me 


asi, asih andara, /row us 



Second Person. 



Case. 


Singular. 


Plural. 


Acc.*\ 


tsa, tJiou and ihee 




toh^ ^ou 


Gen. 


chon, etc., thy 




tuhund, etc., your 


Bat. 


tse, tseh, to thee 




tohi, tohih, /o you 


Ag. 


tse, tseh, by thee 




tohi, tohih, 6y yoM 


Loc. 


tse manz, or tseh manz. 


tohi manz, or tohih manz. 




in thee 




in you 


Ab. 


tee, tseh andara, /row 


thee 


tohi, tohih andara, /row 
you 



* Aocusative sometimes tseh^ tse. 



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24 



kashmIuI grammar. 



48. 



Third Person, 



Case] 



Nom/ 
Ace. 

Gen. 

Bat. 

Ag. 

Loc» 



Ah. 



SiNOULAB. 



Muse. 



Fern. 



suh, su, he soh, so, she 



ftam^sund, etc.,^ 
^tahund, etc., v ' 
[tasund, etc., J 



tamis, tas, to him or her 



tamiuk, 
etc., its 

tath,/ot/ 
tami, tamih, by her 



Neut. 



tih, ti, it 



tam^ by 
him 

{tamis manz,] in him, 
tas manz, J in her 



[tami, tas 1 from him 
1 andara, j or her 



tath 
manz, 
in it 

tath an- 
dara, 
from it 



Plural. 



Maso. Fern, 



tim, they 



tim&, they 



timan hund, ] 

etc., i^ their 

ti hund, etc., j 
timan, to them 
timau, by them 

timan manz, tn them 



timau andara, /rom 
them 



49. The third personal pronoun has often the force of a 
demonstrative; as, He is poor, Suh chhu gharib; but. That 
young man is very drunk, Suh jawdn chhu sdkht nashas 
manz. 

II. Possessive Pronouns. 

50. itfton, «(m, chofn, tuhund, tasund, and timan hund, or ti 
hund — the genitives of the personal pronouns boh, as, tsa, 
td¥, suh, and tim — are thus inflected — 



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PRONOUNS, 



26 



Mion, my. 





Masculine. 


Femimike. 


Case. 


Singular noun 
possessed. 


Plural noun 
possesseil. 


Singular noun 
possessed. 


Plural noun 
possessed. 


Ace. J 


mion 


mion^ 


mion^ 




r miani, 
1 mianih 


Oen. 


mionis 


mian^'en 


miani, 
nih 


mia- 


mian^en 


Bat. 


miouis 


mian^en 


miani, 
nih 


mia- 


mian'en 


Ag. 


mion^ 


mian^'au 


miani, 
nih 


mia- 


mian^au 


IXHS. 


mionis 


mian^en 


miani, 
nih 


mia- 


mian^en 


Voc. 


miani, mia- 
nih 


mian^'au 


mian^ 




mian%u 



51. 



Son, our. 



NomA 
Ace. 


son 


s6n> 


son* 


sani, sanih 


Gen. 


Bonis 


B6n>en 


sani, sanih 


sanJen 


Bat. 


Bonis 


s6n?en 


sani, sanih 


san?en 


Ag. 


Fon^ 


son^au 


sani, sanih 


sanJ'au 


Loe. 


sonis 


son^en 


sani, sanih 


san^'en 


Voe. 


sani, sanih 


han^au 


sanf 


san?au 



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26 



KASHSIIRI GRAMMAR. 



52. 



Chon, thy. 





Masculine. 


Feminine. 


Case. 


Singular noun 
possessed. 


Plural noun 
possessed. 


Singular noun 
possessed. 


Plural noun 
possessed. 


Ace, ] 

Gen. 

Bat. 

Ag, 

Loe. 

Voc. 


chon 

chanis 

chanis 

chon^ 

chanis 

chani 


chon*" 

chan^en 
chan^en 
chan^au 
chan>en 
chan^'au 


chon*' 

chani, chanih 
chani, chanih 
chani, chanih 
chani, chanih 
chon** 


fchani, 
1 chanih 
chan?en 
chan>en 
chan^au 
chan^en 
chan^au 



53. 



Tuhund, your. 



Norn. 
Ace. 


tuhund 


tuhand> 


tuhanz 


tuhanza 


Gen. 


tuhandis 


tuhand*en 


tuhanzi, tu- 
hanzih 


tuhanzan 


Bat. 


tuhandis 


tuhand?en 


tuhanzi, tu- 
hanzih 


tuhanzan 


Ag. 


tuhand^ 


tuhandJau 


tuhanzi, tu- 
hanzih 


tuhanz*au 


Loe. 


tuhandis 


tuhand*en 


tuhanzi, tu- 
hanzih 


tuhanzan 


Voc. 


tuhandi, tu- 
handih 


tuhand^au 


tuhanz* 


tuhanz^'au 



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PEONOUNS. 



27 



54. 



Tasund, his^ her, its. 





Masculine. 


Feminine. 


Case. 


Singalar noun 
possessed. 


Plural noun 
possessed. 


Singular noun 
possessed. 


Plural noun 
possessed. 


Norn A 
Ace, ] 


tasund 


tasand> 




tasanza 


Gen, 


tasandis 


tasandJ'en 


tasanzi, ta- 
sanzih 


tasanzan 


Dat. 


tasandis 


tasand'en 


tasanzi, ta- 
sanzih 


tasanz^an 


Ag, 


tasand^' 


tasand>au 


tasanzi, ta- 
sanzih 


tasanzan 


Log, 


tasandis 


tasandJen 


tasanzi, ta- 
sanzih 


tasanz^an 


Voc. 


tasandi, ta- 
sandih 


tasand^u 


tasanz 


tasanz^u 



55. 



Timan hund, or ti hnnd, their. 



Nom.\ 


timan hund, 


timan han- 


timan hanz, 


timan han- 


Ace. J 


or ti hund 


dJ, or ti 


or ti hanz, 


za, or ti 






band>, or 


or ti hinz 


hanza, or 






ti hiud^ 




ti hinza 


Gen. 


timan handis, 


timan ban- 


timan hanzi. 


timan han- 




or ti handis 


d>en, or 


or ti hanzi, 


zan, or ti 






ti Landm- 


or ti hinz» 


hanzan, 






en, or ti 




or ti hin- 






hindJen 




zan 



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28 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 





Masculine. 


Feminine. 


Case. 


Singular noun 
possessed. 


Plural noun 
possessed. 


Singular noun 
possessed. 


Plural noun 
possessed. 


Pat. 


timanliandis, 


timan Lan- 


timan hanzi, 


timan han- 




or ti liandis 


dmen, or 


or ti hanzi, 


zan, or ti 






ti Landm- 


or ti hinz* 


hanzan. 






en, or ti 




or ti hin- 






hindJen 




zan 


Ag. 


timan hand^ 


timan Lan- 


timan hanz^ 


timan han- 




or ti hand^ 


dman, or 


or ti hanz^ 


z%u, or 






ti handJ- 


or ti hinzi 


ti hanz^- 






au, or ti 




au, or ti 






hind^'au 




hinz^au 


Loc. 


timan handis, 


timan Lan- 


timan hanz^ 


timan han- 




or ti handis 


dmen, or 


or ti hanz>, 


zan, or ti 






ti handi- 


or ti hinzi 


hanzan. 






en, or ti 




or ti hin- 






hindien 




zan 


Voc. 


timan handi, 


timan lian- 


timan hanz, 


timan hain- 




timan han- 


dJau, or 


or ti hanz, 


z?au, or 




dih, or ti 


ti bande- 


or ti hinz 


ti hanz^- 




handi, ti 


au, or ti 




au, or ti 




handiii 


hind^'au 




hinz^au 



66. When the possessive pronoun accompanies a noun in 
the genitive case with -uk, the final 8 of the possessive pro- 
noun is omitted, and in the first and second persons the vowel 
is slightly modified ; as, sdni kalamuk, chant kalamuk, taaandi 
kalamuk. For further particulars, Me Syntax: Genitive 
case. 



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PRONOtJNS. 29 

57. Pronominal Affixes as uskd with Verbs. 





Singular. 


Plural. 


Pebsok. 


Ace. for pres. and fut., 
and Ag. for past tenses. 


Acc.. for 
past tense. 


Dat. for 
all tenses. 


Ag. Acc. Dat. 


1st 

2nd 

3rd 


-m 

-t(i) 

-n(8) 


-S 
-k 
-n 


-m 
-i 

-8 


-va 
-k 



For more details concerning pronominal affixes, see Verb. 

III. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

58. The third personal pronoun is often used as a demon- 
strative in Kashmiri, as well as yih and huh. Of the latter 
two pronouns, yih refers to an object that is near, or to the 
last of two objects mentioned in conversation, whilst huh is 
used of an object more remote. 

59. Yih, this. 



Case. 


Singular. 


Plural. 


NomA 
Acc, 


yih, this 


yim, fem. yima, these 


Gen, 


yem^ snnd, etc., neut. 


yiman hund, etc., or yi- 




yethik, etc., of this 


himd, etc., of these 


Dat. 


yemis, nent. yath, yeth, 
to this 


yiman, to these 


Ag, 


yem^ fern, yemi, yemih, 
this 


yiman, the^e 


Loc. 


yemis nish, fem. yemi 
or yemih nish, near this 


yiman andar, in these 


Voc. 


ha yemis, this 


ha yiman, thes& 



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30 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



60. Instead of the above declension, the following is often 
used, especially by villagers : — 



Case. 


Singular. 


Plural. 


NomA 
Ace. J 


yih, fern, noh, this 


n6m% fern, noma, these 


Gen. 


nom^ snnd, etc., or nam- 


noman hund, or nuhund. 




sund, etc., of thia 


of these 


Dat. 


no mis, neut. yatb, yeth, 
to this 


noman, to these 


Ag. 


n6m>, fern, nomi, nomih, 
tliis 


nomau, these 


Log. 


nomis nisb, fern, nomi or 
nomih nisb, near this 


noman nish, near these 


Voc. 


ha nomis, ha nomih, thia 


ha nomau, these 



61. 


Huh, that 


Nom,\ 


hu, huh, fern, ho, hoh. 


am^ those 


Ace. ] 


that 




Gen. 


am eund, etc., of that 


a man hund, etc., of those 


Dat. 


amis, neut. atb, to that 


aman, to those 


Ag. 


ami, fem. ami, amih, that 


amau, those 


Loc. 


amis nish, fem. ami or 
amih nish, near that 


aman nish, near those 


Voc. 


ha amis, fem. ha ami or 
amih, that 


ha amau, those 



62. The pronoun huh is very frequently used by women 
in speaking of any one (particularly men) whose name^ they 
do not wish to mention. 



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PRONOUNS. 



31 



IV. Eeflexive Pronouns. 

63. The word pdnq in Kashmlii means " self," and is in 
declinable ; it is used with all persoDS, numbers, and genders ; 
as, ho pdnq, I myself ; as panq, we ourselves ; tsq pdnq, thou 
thyself; toM pdnq, you yourselves ; tim pdnq, they themselves, 
etc. The intensive form of pdnq is pdnai. 

64. Pdn means " the human body," and hence " self." We 
can say, for instance, Mion pdn chhu himdr. My body is ill. 
Pdnawon^ means " amongst ourselves, yourselves, themselves," 
etc., like dpae men in Urdu. Fdnq is not used in an honorific 
sense, as dp is in Urdu. 

65. Panun, oiiw, is thus declined — 





SiNQULAB. 


Plural. 


Case. 












Masc. 


Fem. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


NomA 










Ace. 1 


panun 


panan^ 


panan* 


panani 


Gen. 


panan> sund, 


panani 


panan^ sund, 


panani 




etc., or pa- 


sanz, etc. 


etc. 


sanza,etc. 




nanisak 










sund, etc. 








Bat. 


pananis 


panani 


panan^en 


panan^en 


Ag. 


panan^ 


panani 


panan^au 


panan>au 


Log. 


pananis 


panani 


panan^en 


panan>en 


Voc. 


ha pananis 


ha panani 


ha panan^au 


hapanan>au 



66. Panun is used in Kasbmiri like apnd in Urdu. It 
constantly supplies the place of " my," " thy ," " his," ** her," 
•* our," ** your," " their," when they represent the same person 
as the nominative of the sentence. 



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32 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



67. Panun pan and panani pdnq, my own self, myself, 
himself, etc., are regularly inflected; thus, SuJi chhu panun 
pan mdrdn. He is killing himself; Tm chhuk panania pdnas 
taklif diwdn, Thou art giving thyself trouble ; Panani pdnuh 
gam. My own sorrow. 

68. When the pronouns " my," " thy," etc., do not represent 
the same person as the nominative of the sentence in which 
they stand, they cannot be expressed by panun ; the genitive 
of the personal pronoun must then be used ; thus, Suh chhu 
panani kitdh pardn, He is reading his (own) book ; Suh chhu 
tasqnz kitdh pardn, He is reading his (another person's) book. 



69. 



V. The Eelative Pronoun. 
Yus, who. 



Case. 


Singular. 


Plural. 


Nom. 1 


yus, fem. yosa, who ; neut. 


yim, who, which^ that 


Ace, J 


yih, or yi, which 




Oen. 


yem^sund, etc., or yasond. 


yiman hund, etc., or yi- 




etc., whose 


hund, etc., of whom, 
which 


Bat. 


yas, or yemis, to whom; 
neut. yath, or yeth, to 
what 


yiman, to whom, which 


Ag. 


yem^ fem. y emi , or y emih, 
who^ which 


yimau, who 


Loc. 


yemis nish, fem. yemi or 


yiman nish, near whom. 




yemih nish, near whom. 


which 




which 





70. The relative pronoun yus is generally followed by 
the personal pronoun suh, and agrees with its substantive 



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PRONOUNS. 



33 



(expressed or understood) in number, gender, and case ; thus, 
Yiman nechMen chhe himmat tim Tiechan, Those boys who have 
ambition, they will learn ; Tosq hur maji chhe mdndn so sapani 
mdji hish, The daughter who obeys (her) mother, she will 
become like (her) mother; Tih dthu wanan tih chhu kardn^ 
What he says, that he does. 

71. The pronoun suh may be also used with the antecedent, 
and the relative will then follow ; as. Me nish chhe so milidavdt 
yosa idhi nish os, I have the inkstand which you had. 



72. 



YI. The Interrogative Pronoun. 
Kus? whof 



GA8B. 



Nom, 

Ace. 

Gen. 



Bat. 

Ag. 
Loc. 



Singular. 



Plueal. 



' ! 

kus? fem. kosa? wAof kam? fern, kama? who? 

neut. kya ? what f , which ? what ? 

kam^und, etc. ? or ka- ' kaman hund, etc. ? whose ? 

sund, etc. ? or kohund, ! 

etc. ? whose ? neut. ka- I 

mhik, etc. ? of what ? 



kamis or kas? to whom? 

neut. kath ? to what f 
kam^"? whof fem. kami? 

what? 
kamis nish? near whom? 

neut. kath nish? near 

what? 



kaman? to whom, which j 

what? 
kamau? who? which? what? 

kaman nish? near whom, 
which, what? 



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34 



kashh!r! grammar. 



73. 



VII. Indefinite Pronouns. 
Kanh, amy ; kenh, some. 



■ 

Case. 


Singular. 


Plubal. 


Norn. \ 
Ace. 1 
Gen. 

Bat. 
Ag. 


kanh, neut. kenh, any 

konsi hund, etc., knnhik, 

of any 
konsi, to any 
konsi, any 


kenh, 8ome 

kentsan hund, etc., of some 

kentsan, to some 
kentsan, som>e 



74. It will be observed that Icmh is both the sing. nent. 
of Icanh^ meaning " something ; " and also the plu. masc, fern., 
and nent., meaning " some persons or things." 

75. To the above may be added alcd, one ; heydk, another ; 
kansa or kdntsa, hustdm, some one; kensa, or kentsa, some- 
thing. 

76. Akd and heydk are declined like 'nouns of the first 
declension; and kustdm is declined. regularly like kus, with 
tdm added. 



VIII. Distributive Pronouns. 

77. These are har, each ; p-at^ each, every ; «orot, sorai, or 
sorsaiy all. 



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PRONOUNS, 



35 



78. 



IX. Adjective Pronouns. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


yuth, like this 


yits 


yith* 


yitsa 


tiuth, lihe that 


tits 


tith^* 


titsa 


kiuth? like what? 


kits? 


kith>? 


kitsa? 


yut, this much or many 


yits 


yit^ 


yitsa 


tut, that miLch or many 


tits 


titi 


titsa 


kut (kot, kate)? how much 


kats 


katJ 


katsa 


or 7nany f 


(kits)? 


(kitO? 


(kitsa)? 



For other forms, as, yot, here ; katitdm^ somewhere ; yiti, 
just here ; ycUi, just where ; see Adverb. 

X. Compound Pronouns. 

79. There are a large number of compound pronouns in 
Eashmlil, formed by combining together in various ways the 
simple pronouns already mentioned. They are for the most 
part of the indefinite kind, and follow the inflections of the 
simple forms of which they are composed ; as, yus hdnh, who- 
ever ; gen. yas honsi hund ; dat. yas konsi^ etc. 

The most common and useful are: TiJcenh, or yih kenh, 
whatever; yus akd^ whoever; heyih kanh^ some one else; 
heyih kenh, something else ; kdiih na, no one ; kenh nq, nothing ; 
kanh ttata kanh, some one or other ; kyaddm, something ; ker^ 
nata kenh, something or other ; prat kanh, har kanh, every one ; 
har akd, every one ; prat kenh, har kenh, everything ; heyih na, 
no more; heyih soroi, all the rest; beyih sitha, much more; 
vdraya, several ; ada kya, what else (of course). 



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36 kashmIri geammae. 

80. Intensive Forms. Almost all the pronouns can be 
made intensive by adding to them i, ai, oi^ or oi ; as, hoi, hoi ; 
as, qsi; su, ml; toh^, tohi; chon, chonoi; hu, hut; yih, yihoi, 
fem. yihai ; yus, yuaoi ; yuth, yuthoi ; yem^mnd, yem^sundoi. 



CHAPTER V. 

VERBS. 



81. The verbs in Kasbmiri are generally very regular. All 
infinitives invariably end in -un, and, by rejecting the final 
-Mn, we have the root ; as, dsun, to be, root as ; pahun, to go, 
walk, root pah; mdrun, to beat, kill, root mar. The root is 
always the second person imperative, to which the regular 
affixes are added for the other persons of the imperative 
mood. By adding -an to the root, we obtain the indefinite 
active participle, as dsdn, pakdn, mdrdny being, going, killing ; 
by adding 'it to the root, the conjunctive participle, as daitj 
pakit, mdrity having been, gone, killed ; and by adding -ont, 
the adverbial participle, as dsoni, pakoniy mdroni, on being, on 
going, on killing. The future is formed by adding the regular 
affixes -a, -ah, -t, etc., to the root, as dsq, dsah, dsi, I shall be, 
thou wilt be, he will be ; so paJcq, pdkak, paki ; mdrq, mdrak, 
mdri. The past subjunctive is formed by adding the regular 
affixes -aha, -ahak, -ihe, etc., to the root ; as, dsahq, dsdhak, dsihe, 
I might have been or had I been, thou mightest have been, 
he might have been; so pakahq, pakahaky pakihe; mdrahq, 
mdrahak, mdrihe. The noun of agency is formed from the root 
by adding -anwol or -awun ; as, dsanwolj dsawun, one who is, or 
is about to be ; so pakanwol, pakawun, a goer, or one about 
to go ; mdranwol, mdraumn, a killer. A pluperfect, sometimes 



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VERBS. 37 

used, is also formed from the root, but often with a change of 
the last consonant ; as, asos, asok, dsov^ etc., I had been, thou 
hadst been, he had been ; pachos, pachoJc, pachiov, etc., I had 
gone, thou hadst gone, he had gone. The transitive verb 
mdrun makes the pluperf. masc. sing, mdriov, fern, mareyi^ etc. 

82. To form the third person masculine singular of the 
past indefinite, the vowel of the root generally undergoes 
a slight change. Of these changes the most simple are — 
long a is changed into long o, and short a into short o ; thus, 
d9u,n, to be, root d«, 3rd pers. sing. masc. past indef. o«, he 
was ; so mdrun, mdr, 3rd pers. sing. masc. past indef. mor, he 
killed; paJcun, pah, poh^ he went. From the third person 
singular masculine past indefinite the perfect participle is 
formed by adding -mut; as, osmut, been; pokmut, gone; 
marmuty killed. 

All the other tenses in the conjugation of transitive and 
intransitive verbs are formed by the help of the auxiliary 
verb daun. 

83. The following example will show how the principal 
parts of the verb are formed from the root : — 

Infinitive : Pakun, to go, 

pak, 2nd pers. sing. imp. 

pakan, act. part, 

pakit, conjunc. part, 

pakoni, adverb, part. 

Boot : pak ' paka, 1st pers. sing. fut. 

pakaha, 1st pers. sing, past subjunc. 

pakanwol, ] 

pakawtm, | nouns of agency 

I pachiov, 3rd pers. masc. sing, pluperf. 

pok, 3rd pers. masc. sing, past indef. 

pokmut, perf. part. 



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(pak) pok i 



38 



kashmIrI qrammar. 



Conjugation of Verbs. 

84. Asnn, to he. 

Boot : as (chb). 

Infinitive : asun, to he, 

asana, on account of heing. 

asani, in order to he, 

asanuk, etc., of heing (declined). 

Present participle : asan, heing. 

Conjunctive participle : asit, having heen (not declined). 

Adverbial participle: asoni, on heing (not declined). 

Past participle : osmut, heen (declined). 





Singular. 


Plural. 




Masc. 


Fem. 


Masc. 


Fem. 




asanwol, he who 


asanwoj 


asanwol*" 


asanwajeni 




is or is about 








Nouns of 


to he 








agency 


Usawun, he who 
is or is about 
to he 


fisawan> 


asawan? 


asawani 


Past 1. 
participle] 


osmut, heen 


osmats 


dsmat> 


asamatsa 



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VERBS. 



39 



Indicative Moop. 
Present (indefinite) : I am, etc. 



SlNGUI.AR. 


Plubal. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Maso. 


Fem. 


BohJ ''^''^ 
Tsa chhuk 
Su 1 ohhti, 
Suh J chhuh 


^j^jchhas 

tsa chhak 
so \ chhe, 
sob J chheh 


fchbi, 
^ {chhih 
tob* chbiva 
.._ fchhi, 
*'^ Uhih 


fchhe, 
^ \chbeh 
toh^ chbeva 





Past (indefinite) : I was, etc. 




B6 08US 
Tsa osnk 
Su OS 


bo osas 
tsa osak 
so' 08* 


as os^' 
toh** os^a 
tim 6s» 


as iisa 
tob^ asava 
tima asa 



Pluperfect : I had been, etc. (not often 


L used). 


Bo asos, or 


bo * aseyas, or 


as asey 


as aseyi 


Ssyos 


aseyes 






Tsa asok, or 


tsa aseyak, or 


t6h» aseva 


toh^ aseyiva 


asjok 


Seeyek 






Su asov, or 


so aseyi, or 


tim i^asey 


tima aseyi, or 


asyov 


aseyih 




aseyih 



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40 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



Future : I shall he, thou wilt he, etc. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Bo 


asa 


as 


asau 


Tsa 


asak 


tohi 


asiv 


Sill 
So j 


- asi, asili 


tim 1 
tima J 


asan 


Imperative Mood. 




Be thou, etc. 




Tsa 


as, asta 


tohi 


osiu, ostau 


Su ) 
So J 


osin, ostan 


tim 1 
tima J 


osin, ostan 



Subjunctive Mood. 
Present : I may, etc. 

Bo asa, etc., or Bo ai asa or asabai, if I may, etc., the same a&r 
the Indicative Future. 

Past (indefinite) : were I, or had I heen, etc. 



Bo 


asaha 


as 


asahau 


Tsa 


asahak 


toh^ 


asihiu 


Su 


asihe 


tim 


asahan 



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VERBS. 



41 



Interrogative Forms. 
Present : am I? etc. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Bo chhusa? 
Tsa ohhuka? 

chhua? 
Su -chhwa? 

phha? 


bo chhasa? 
tea chhaka? 

so chhea? 


as chhia ? 
toh^ chhiva? 

tim ohhia? 


as chhea? 
t6h> chheva? 

tima chhea? 



Future : shall Ihef etc. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Bo 

Tsa 
Su 


asa? 

asaka? 

asia? 


as 

toh* 

tim 


asava? 
asiva ? 
asana ? 



85. The interrogative forms are the present, future, etc., 
with a, a, d, added to the various persons of the indicative 
mood. 

Other tenses are formed from the above, as — 

Present imperfect: Bo chhus asan, etc., I am being; the 

participle remaining uninflected. 
Past imperfect : Bo osus asan, etc., I was being. 
Future imperfect: Bo asa asan, etc., I shall be being. 
Present perfect : Bo chhus osmut, etc., I have been. 
Past perfect (pluperfect) : Bo osus osmut, etc., I had been. 
Future perfect : Bo asa osmut, etc., I shall have been. 



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42 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



86. The perf. part, osmut is declined to agree with its 
nominative in number and gender, as follows : — 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Masc. 


Fern. 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Bo 


chhus os- 


bo 


chhas OS- 


as 


chhi 6s- 


as 


chhe asa- 




mut 




mats 




mat» 




matsa 


Tsa chhukos- 


tsa chhak os- 


toh^ 


chhiva 


toh* 


chheva a- 




mnt 




mats 




osmat^ 




samatsa 


Su 


chhu os- 


so 


chhe OS- 


tim 


chhi OS- 


tima chhe asa- 




mut 




mats 




mat^ 




matsa 



Osmut is declined in the same way, with the various 
persons of oms for the pluperfect, and of dsq for the future 
perfect ; also with dsdhq of the subjunctive mood. 

87. Conditional mood. This is generally formed by the 
help of ae, if, which is sometimes added to the verb as an 
affix ; as, Su ai man (or marihai) tq ho hya Tcarq f If he should 
die then, what shall I do? Tam} ai tas zahr diutmut dsihe tq 
8U marihe zarur. If he had given him poison he would cer- 
tainly have died. 

88. The verb asun is the only one in the language that 
has a present indefinite tense ; the others have only a present 
imperfect, or continuous. 

89. Imperative mood. The second forms given above are 
more respectful than the first ; dstq is more respectful than 
da. Besides these, others are also used, obtained by adding 
zif sa (from adhiU), aha (from hddsMK), haz (from hazrat^, to 
the simple imperative ; as, kar, do thou ; karsa, be pleased to 
do, or do, sir ; karahd (very respectful), do, king. 



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VERBS. 



43 



90. INTRJLNSITIVE VeRBS. 

(1) Paknn, to go, to walk. 
Boot: pak. 

InfinitiYe : pakun, to go. 

pakana, on cmcount of going, for going. 
pakani, in order to go. 
pakanuk, of going. 

Active participle : pak&D, going. 

Conjunctive participle : pakit, having gone. 

Adverbial participle : pakoni, on going, at the time of going. 

Perfect participle : pokmut, gone. 

'^'^ ( pakanwol, ] a goer, one who goes or is about 
Nouns of agency : [^^^^^^ } <„ g„^ 



Indicative Mood. 
Present (imperfect, or continuous) : I am going, etc. 



SlNGXTLAR. 


Plural. 


Maso. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


B6 chhus' 
Tsa chhuk 

Su chhu 


1 

s 


L6 chhas^ 
tea clihak 

so chhe 


1 

s 


as chhi 
idhi chhi- 
v^ 
tim chhi 


1 


as chhe ' 
toh^ chhe- 

va 
tima chhe 





Imperfect : I was going, etc. 



Bo osus1»^ 
Tsa osuk>&' 

Su 08 J P 



bo osas "j ►ts 
tea osak S- g^ 
60 08 J ^ 



as 08^' 1 ^ 



tohJ osf'va \ w* 

. * p« 

tim osJ J P 



as &sa 
toh^ asava 
tima 3,sa 



"2 



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44 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 







Perfect : 


I have gone, etc 


• 






Singular. 


Plural. 


Maso. 


Fem. 


Maso. 


Fern. 


Bo chhus 
Tsa chhuk 

Su chhu 


It 


bo chhas ' 
tea chhak 

80 chhe 


1 


as ohhi ' 
t6h>' chhi- 
va 
tim chhi 




as chhe 
toh^ chhe- 

va 
tima chhe 





Bo pokus 

Tsa pokuk 
Su pok 



Past (indefinite) : I went, etc. 



fpachis, 
I paches 

{pachik, 
pachek 
60 pach 



as 



pak^ 



^.j^Jpakiva, 
( pakeva 
tim pak^ 



as pachi 

toh^ pachi va 
tima pachi 



Pluperfect — 1st form: I had gone, etc. (used also as 
Subjunctive). 



Bo pachos, or 


bo pacheyas, 


as pachey 


as pacheyi 


pachyos 


or pa- 
oheyes 






Tsa pachok, or 


tea pacheyek 


t6h» pacheva 


t6h> pacheyi- 


pachyok 






va 


Su pachiov, or 


so pacheyi 


tim pachey 


tima pacheyi 


pachyov 









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VERBS. 



45 



Pluperfect — 2nd form : I had gone, etc. (more often used). 



SlNGULAB. 


Plubal. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Bo osus ] % 
Tsa osuk • ^ 
Su' OS j g. 


bo osas 
tsa osak 
so OS 


■| 


toM os^va.g" 
tim os> y^ 


as asa 1 
tot* asava 
tima asa , 


k 





Future : I ehall go, etc 


'• 


SlNGULAB. 


Plural. 


B6 

Tsa 
Sul 
So J 


paka 
pakak 

paki 


as 
tot* 
tim 1 
tima J 


pakau 
pakiu 

pakan 



Future Imperfect (or continuous) : I shall he going, etc. 





SlNGULAB. 


Plubal. 




Bo 


asa 1 




as 


asau 






Tsa 

Su \ 
So J 


asak 
asi 


' pakan 


tob^ 
tim 1 
tima J 


asiu 
asan 


pakan 



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46 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



Future Perfect : I shall have gone, etc. 



SlNOULAR. 


Plural. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Hasc. 


Fern 


Bo Ssa \ % 
Tsa asak • ^ 
Sn asi J g. 


bo asa 
tsa asak 
so asi 


1 
1 


Ill 

3.11 


[■J 


as asau^ g 
tob^ asiv I ^ 
tima awanj |5^ 



Imperative Mood. 
Oo thoUf etc. 





Singular. 




Plural. 




Masc. and 
Fem. 


Respectful. 
Masc. and Fem. 


Masc. and 
Fem. 


Respectful. 
Masc. and Fem. 


Tsa 

Sul 
Soj 


• 
pak 

pakin 


pakta, pak- 

sa 
pakzi, pak- 

sba 

pakitan 


t6b> 

tim ] 
timaj 


pakiu, 
paki- 
beu 

pakin 


pakiusa, 
paktau, 
pacbtau 
(fem.) 

pakitan 



" Let me, bim, tbem, etc., go " (** give me, bim, tbem, to 
^^ ,r may be tbus expressed (di is tbe 2nd pers. sing. imp. 
' ' - give)— 



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VERBS. 



47 



SlNQUT.AR. 


Plural. 


Me ^ 
Tse 
Tas J 


di, diu, etc., pakana 


asi ] 
timan 


di, dio, etc., pakana 



Subjunctive Mood. 
Present : •/ 1 goy etc. 



Bo 
Tsa 

Sol 


pakahai, or ai paka 
pakakai, or ai pakak 

pakei, <yr ai paki 


as 
tohJ 
tim 1 
tima J 


pakavai, or ai pakau 
pakivai, or ai pakiu 

pakanai, or ai pakan 



Past (^indefinite) : had I gone, etc., •/ 1 toenty etc. 



Bo 


pakaha, or ai pakaba 


as 


pakaban, or ai paka- 
Iiau 


Tsa 


pakahak, or ai pakabak 


t6b> 


pakibiu, or ai paki- 
bin 


Su) 
So J 


pakibe, or ai pakibe 


tim ) 
tima J 


pakaban, or ai paka- 
ban 



Perfect : I may have gone, etc. 

Bo asa pokmnt, fem. bo asa pokmats, etc., tbe same as tbe 
future perfect. By adding at or harga^ Bo ai asa pokmut, or 
Bo asabai pokmut, 1/ 1 may have gone. 



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48 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



Pluperfect : I might have gone, etc. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


MaBc. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Bo asaha ]^. 
Tsaasaliakj.g' 
Su asihe J g. 


bo asaha ^"g 
tea asahak - ^ 
BO asihe J g. 


as asahau) ^ 
t6h> asihiu - g 
tim asahanj ^ 


as asahau^ § 
toh> asihiu g 
tima asahanj |S- 



Interrogative Forms. 
Present : am I going ? etc. 



Bo chhusa^ 


bo chhasa^ 


as chhia 




as chheal 




Tsa chhuka 
Tchhua, 


I 

r pi 


tea chhaka 


»T3 


toh^ chhi- 
va 


1- 


t6h> chhe- 
va 


I 


Su <chhwa, 


;3 


sd chhea 


.v) tim chhia 




tima chhea 


•>3 


phha 




J 






J 



Future : shall I go? etc. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Bo 

Tsa 

So] 


paka? 
pakaka? 

pakia? 


as 

t6h> 
tim 1 
tima J 


pakava? 
pakiva? 

pakana ? 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



VERBS. 

So of the other tenses — 

Bo chhusa pokmut ? have I gone f 
Bo osusa pokmut ? had I gone ? 
Bo asa pakan ? shall I he going f 
Bo asa pokmut ? shall I have gone f 

91. (2) Doiun, to run. 

Boot: dor. 

Infinitive : dorun, to run, 

dorana, for running, 

dorani, in order to run, 

doranuk, etc., of running. 

Active participle : doran, or dawan, running. 

Conjunctive participle : dorit, having run. 

Adverbial participle : dor6n>, on running. 

Perfect participle : doryomut, or durmut, run. 

( doranwol, a runner. 
Nouns of agency : I ^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^^ 

Indicative Mood. 

Present (regular) : I am running^ etc. 

Bo chhus, bo chhas doran or dawan, etc. 

Imperfect (regular) : I was running y etc. 
Bo osus, bo osas doran or dawan, etc. 

Past (indefinite) : I ran, etc. 



49 



SiNGULAB. 


Plural. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Bo doryos 


bo doreyas, or 


as dorei, or 


as doreyi 




doreyes 


dorey 




Tsa doryok 


tea doreyek 


toll* doreva 


tob*' doreyiva 


Su doryov 


so doreyi 


tim dorei, or 


tima doreyi 


• 




dorey 





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50 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

Perfect (regular) : J have run, etc. 
Bo cliliuB, bo chhas doryomut or durmut, etc. 

Pluperfect — Ist form : I had run, etc. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Maso. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Bo doreyos 

Tsa doreyok 
Su doreyov 


fdoreyeyas, 
^ [doreyeyes 
tsa doreyeyek 
so doreyeyi 


as doreyey 

toh^ doreyeva 
tim doreyey 


as doreyeyi 

toh^ doreyiva 
tima doreyeyi 



Pluperfect — 2nd form (r^ular) : I, we, had run, etc. 
Bo osus doryomut or durmut, bo osas doremats or durmats. 
As os> doremat^ or duiimat>, as asa dorematsa or dorimatsa, etc. 

Future (regular) : J, thou, he or she will run, etc. 
Bo dora, tsa dorak, su or so dori, etc. 

Imperative Mood (regular). 

Bun thou, etc. 

Ts a dor, dorta, etc. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present (regular) : if I run or may run, etc. 

Bo ai dora, etc. 

Past (regular) : had I run, etc. 
Bo doraha, etc. 



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VERBS. 



51 



92. (3) Gratshun, to gc^ to become. 

Root: gatsh. 
Infinitive : gatshun, to go^ to become. 
gatsbana, for going. 
gatshani, in order to go. 
gatshanuk, etc., of going. 
Active participle : gatshan, goin^. 
Conjunctive participle : gatshit, having gone. 
Adverbial participle : gatsbon?, on going. 
Perfect participle : gomut, gone, become. 
( gatebanwol, a goer. 
Nouns of agency : jg^tsbawun, one about to go. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present, Imperfect, and Perfect, regular. 

Past (indefinite) : I went or became^ etc. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Masc. 


Fcm. 


Mase. 


Fern. 


B6 


gos 


bo gayas, or 
gayes 


as 


gai, or 

gay 


as 


gayi 


Tsa 


gok 


tsa gayek 


tola} 


gava 


tob^ 


gayiva 


Su 


gaw 


so gayi 


tim 


gai, or 

gay 


tima 


gayi 



Pluperfect — 1st form ; J had gone or become^ etc. 



B6 gayos 

Ts a gayok 
Su gayov 



bo gayey as, or 
gayeyes 
tsa gayeyek 
s6 gayeyi 



as gayeyi 

t6b> gayiva 
tima gayeyi 



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52 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

The other parts of this verb present no difficulty. They 
are conjugated like pahun. 

93. (4) Sapun, or sapanun, to hecome. 

Boot: sapan. 

Infinitive : sapun (sapanun), to become, 

sapanuk, etc., of becoming. 

Active participle : sapan an, becoming. 

Conjunctive participle : sapanit, having become. 

Past participle : sapanmut, become. 

„ „ fsapanwol,) one who becomes or is about to 

Nouns of agency : < J> , 

° •^ |sapawun, J become. 



Indicative Mood. 

Present (imperfect) : I am becoming, etc. 

Bo chhus, bo chhas sapan an, etc. 

Imperfect : I was becoming, etc. 
Bo osus, bo osas sapanan, etc. 

Perfect : J have become, etc. 
Bo chhus, bo chhas sapanmut, sapanmats, etc. 

Past (indefinite) : I became, etc. 
Bo sapanus ; tsa sapanuk ; as sapan>, etc. 

Pluperfect — 1st form : I had become, etc. 

Bo sapan^os, or sapanyos ; tsa sapan^ok, or sapanyok ; as 
sapaney, or sapanei, etc. 

Pluperfect — 2nd form : I had become, etc. 
Bo osus, bo osas sapanmut, etc. 



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VERBS. 63 

Future : I shall become^ etc. 
Bo sapana ; tsa sapanak ; as sapanau, etc. 

Future Imperfect ; I shall he becoming, etc. 
Bo asa sapanan ; tsa asak sapanan, etc. 

Future Perfect : I shall have become, etc. 
Bo asa sapanmut ; tsa asak sapanmut, etc. 

Imperative Mood; 

Become thou, etc. 

Tsa sapan, sapanta ; su sapanin, etc. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present : if I may become, etc. 

Bo ai sapana ; tsa ai sapanak, etc. 

Past : had I become, etc. 
Bo sapanaha ; tsa sapanahak, etc. 

Perfect : I may have become, etc. 
Bo asa sapanmut ; tsa asak sapanmut, etc. 

The verb sapadun also means " to become," and is often 
used for sapun. 

The principal parts of sapadun are: Sapadun; sapad; 
sapadan; sapadit; sapodmut; sapadus ; sapanyos. 

The verb is regular. 

It must be remembered that the d changes into z in the 
feminine ; as, bo sapadw (masc), bo sapazas (fem.) ; su sapud 
(masc), so sapaz (fem.) ; sapodmut (masc), sapazmats (fem.). 



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54 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



Transitive Verbs. 

94. (1) Kanin, to do, to make. 

Boot: kar. 
Infinitive : kamn, to do, 

karana, for doing, 
karani, to do, in order to do, 
karanuk, of doing. 
Active participle : karan, doing. 
Conjunctive participle : karit, having done. 
Adverbial participle : kar6n>*, on doing, at the time of doing. 
Perfect participle : kormnt, done. 

' \ a doer, one loho is about to do. 
karawTin, J 



Indicative Mood. 
Present (imperfect, or contimious) : J am doing, etc. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Bo chhus 
Tsa chhuk 

Su chhu 


1 


bo cbbas ' 
tea chbak 

so cbbe 


^ 

p 


as chhi ^ 
toh^ cbhiva 

tim chhi 


1 


as chhe 
t6h> chhe- 

va 
tima chhe 





Imperfect : I was doing, etc. 



Bo osus 
Tsa osuk 




bo osas 



as 08?* ^ ^ 
t6h> 6s>va> S 
tim 6s> J ^ 



^ 



as asa ^ ^ 
tola} asavaS § 
tima asa J ° 



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VERBS. 



65 



Past (indefinite) : I did, etc. (properly it, he, she, etc., was 
done by me, etc.). 





SiNGULAB. 


Plural. 

• 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Me ] 










Asi 










Tam> i" 


kor* 


kar* 


kar^* 


kari* 


Tami 










Timan 










Tse 


korut 


karat 


karit 


karit 


Tohi 


korva 


karva 


kar^Va 


kariva 



Perfect : J have done, etc. (it, he, she, etc., was done 
by me, etc.). 



Me ) 

Asi 

Tam> 

Tami 

Timau 

Tse 

Tohi 



chliu 


kor- 


mut 




cbhut 


kor- 


mut 




oHhtiya kor- 


mut 





clihe kar- 


mats , 


chhet kar- 


mats 


chheva kar- 


mats 



chhi kar>- 
mat>' 

chhit kar?- 

mat?' 
chhiva kar^- 

mat> 



cbhe kari- 
matsa 

chhet kari- 

matsa 
ohheva kari- 

matsa 



* Always agreeing in gender and number with what would be the 
objectiye in English. 



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56 



KASHMIR! GRAMMAR. 



Pluperfect — 1st form : I hid done or had I done it^ he, she, etc. 
(used also as Past Subjunctive). 



Me 1 










Asi 


kariov, or 


k|irey, or ka- 


karey, or 


kareyi, or 


Tam^ ► 


karyov,or 


reyey 


kareyey 


kareyeyi 


Tami 


kareyov 








Timau 










Tse 


kariot, or 


kariet, or 


kariet, or 


kareyit, or 




karyot, or 


karyet, or 


karyet, or 


kareyeyit 




kareyot 


kareyet 


kareyet 




Tohi 


kariova, or 


kareyva, or 


kareyva, or 


kareyiva 




karyova, 


kareyeva 


kareyeva 






or kare- 










yova 









Pluperfect — 2nd form : I had done, etc. (it, he, she, etc., was done 
hy me, etc.). 





Singular. 


Plural. 




Maso. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Me 1 










Asi 










Tam^ [ 


OS kormut 


6s karmats 


os> kar^mat^ 


asa kar?- 


Tami 








matsa 


Timau ^ 










Tse 


osut kormut 


osat kar- 
mats 


ositkarHnat> 


asat kar^- 
matsa 


Tohi 


osvakormut 


osva kar- 


os^va kar>- 


asava kar>- 






mats 


mat> 


matsa 



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VERBS. 



57 



Future : I toill do, etc. ; used also as Present Subjunctive : 
I may do, etc. 



SiNGULAB. 


Plural. 


B6 
Tsa 

Su'l 
So J 


kara 
karak 

kari 


as 
tohJ 
tim 1 
timaj 


karau 
kariv 

karan 



Future Imperfect (or continuous) : J, etc., shall he doing, etc. 



Bo 


asa 1 




as 


asau' 




Tsa 


asak 


r 


toll* 


asiv 


»' 


Su \ 




i" 


tim 1 




8DI 




asi 







asan 





So 


^ 




tima 












} 



Future Perfect : I, etc., shall have done it, he, she, etc. (literally, 
it, he, she, etc., will have been done hy me, etc.). 





SiNOULAB. 


Plubal. 




Maso. 


Fern. 


Maso. 


Fern. 


Me ^ 










Asi 










Tam> . 


asi kormut 


asi karmats 


asan kar- 


asan karma- 


Tami 






mat> 


tsa 


Timau 










Tse 


asetkormut 


aset kar- 


asat kar^- 


asat kar Jma- 






mats 


mat^ 


tsa 


Tohi 


asiva kor- 


asiva kar- 


asava kar>- 


asava kar^- 




mut 


mats 


mat> 


matsa 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



58 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 







Imperative Mood. 
Do (hou^ etc. 






Singular. . 




Plural. 




Maso. and 
Fern. 


Respectful. 
Maso. and Fern. 


Maso. and 
Fern. 


Respectful. 
Maso. and Fern. 


Tsa 

Su 
So J 


kar 
karin 


karta, karsa, 
karzi, etc. 

karitan 


ibhi 

tim 1 
timaJ 


kariujka- 
riheu 

karin 


kartau, kari- 
usa 

karinsa 



SuBjiTNcnvE Mood. 
Present : if I doy etc. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Bo 
Tsa 

Su\ 
So/ 


karahai, or ai kara 
karakai, or ai karak 

kar%i, or ai kari 


as 
iohi 
tim 1 
tima J 


karavai, or ai karau 
karivai, or ai kariv 

karanai, or ai karan 



Past (indefinite) : did J, if I did, etc. 



Bo 


karaha, or ai karaha 


as 


karahan, or ai kara- 
hau 


Tsa 


karaliak, or ai karaliak 


iohi 


karihiu, or ai kari- 








hiu 


Snj 
So J 


karihe, or ai karihe 


tim 1 
tima J 


karaban, or ai kara- 
han 



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VERBS. 



69 



Perfect : 1 may have done, etc. (it, etc., may have been done 





hy me, etc.). 


Me ) 




Asi 




Tain> . 


asi konnut (sing, masc.) asi kannats (sing, fern.) 


Tami 




Timau 




Tse 


asetkormnt „ aset kannats „ 


Tohi 


asiva kormut „ asiva karmats „ 



Pluperfect : had I done, or if I had done, etc. (had it, etc., been 
. done hy me, etc., or if it, etc., had been done by me, etc.). 



Me ^ 






Asi 

Tam> . 
Tami 


asihe or ai asihe 


asihe oral asihe 


kormut (sing, masc.) 


karmats (sing, fem.) 


Timau 






Tse 


asihet or ai asi- 


asihet or ai asihet 




het kormut „ 


karmats „ 


Tohi 


asiheva or ai asi- 


asiheva or ai asi- 




he va kormut „ 


heva karmats „ 



95. (2) Marun, to beat, to kiU. 

Boot: mar. 
Infinitive : marun, to hill. 
Active participle : maran, killing. 

marana, for killing. 
marani, to kill. 
maranuk, of killing. 
Conjunctive participle : marit, having killed. 
Adverbial participle : maron^ on killing. 
Perfect participle : mormut, killed. 

Nouns of agency : < ^^^^^^^ » I a kiUer, one about to kill. 
^m&rawun, J 



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60 



KASHMIR! GRAMMAR. 



Indicative Mood. 
Present (continnous) : I am hilling, etc. 



Singular. 


Pltjeal. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Maso. 


Fern. 


Bo chhus' 
Tsa chhuk 

Su chhu 




bo chhas '^ 
tsa chhak |, 

SQ chhe j 


as ohhi ' 
toh^ chhi- 
va 
tim chhi 


B 

801 


as chhe ' 
toh*' chhe- 
va 
tima chhe . 


B 



Imperfect : I was hilling, etc. 



Bo OSTIS 



B 



Tsa osuk I §• 
Su OS I P 



bo osas ' 
tsa osak 

80 OS 



B 
J §• 



as 6s> 



B 



toW os>Va y ?5' 
tim os> J p 



as asa ] g 
t6h> asava^ §' 
tima asa J ^ 



Past (indefinite) : I hilled, etc. (it, etc., was hillec 


I by me, etc.). 




SiNGULAB. 


Plural. 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Me 1 










Asi 










Tam^ • 


mor 


mor 


mor^ 


mari 


Tami 










Timan 










Tse 


morut 


morat 


morit 


marit 


Tohi 


morva 


morva 


mor^'va 


mar>va 



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VERBS. 



61 



Perfect : I have killed, etc. (it, etc., was Jcilled 
hy me, etc.). 



Me 

Asi 
Tam^ 
Tami 
Timau 

Tse 

Tohi 



chhu mormut chhe mormats 

(sing, masc.) (sing, fern.) 

chhi morimat^ chhe marimatsa 

(pin. masc.) (plu. fern.) 

chhut mormut chhet mormats 

(sing, masc.) (sing, fem.) 

chhuva mormnt „ chheva mormats „ etc. 



Pluperfect — 1st form : I, etc., had killed, etc. (he, etc., had been 
killed hy me, etc.) 





SiNQULAB. 


Plxjbal. 




Masc. 


Fem. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Me 1 










Asi 


marov, or 


marey, or 


marey, or 


mareyi, or 


Tam> V 


maryov, or 


mareyey 


mareyey 


mareyeyi 


Tami 


mareyov 








Timau 










Tse 


mariot, or 


mariet, or 


mariet, or 


mareyit 




maryot, or 


mareyet 


mareyet 






mareyot 








Tohi 


mariova, or 
marej ova 


mareyva, or 
mareyeva 


mareyva 


mareyiva 



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62 



KASHMIRI aRAMMAB. 



Pluperfect — 2nd form : I had kiUed, etc. (it, etc., had been 
hiUed by me, etc.). 





Singular. 


Plural. 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Me ^ 










Asi 










Tam^ 


OS mormut 


OS mormats 


os> morimat^ 


asa marima- 


Tami 








tsa 


Timau , 










Tse 


osut mor- 


osat mor- 


osit mori- 


asat mari- 




mut 


mats 


mit> 


matsa 


Tohi 


osva mor- 


osva mor- 


os>va mori- 


asava mari- 




mut 


mats 


mit^ 


matsa 



Future : I will hill, etc. 



SlNQDLAB. 


Plural. 


B6 


mara 


a« 


marau 


Tsa 


marak 


tohf 


mariu 


Sul 
So J 


mari 


tim \ 
tima J 


maran 



Future (continuous) : J, etc., shall he killing. 



Bo 


asa 




as 


asau 




Tsa 


asak 


5 


toh^ 


asiu 


5 
pi 


Sal 




& 


tim \ 






So J 


asi 


3 " 


tima J 


a^an 


^ 



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VERBS. 



63 



Future Perfect: J, etc., ahcdl have hilled (he^ etc., will have 
been hilled by me, etc.) ; used also as Subjunctive Perfect : 
J, etc., may have been hilled (he, etc., may have been hilled 
by me, etc.). 



Me ^ 




Asi 




Tam> y 


asi mormut (sing, masc.) asi mormats (sing, fern.) 


Tami 




Timau j 




Tse 


aset mormut „ aset mormats „ 


Tohi 


asiva mormut „ asiva mormats „ etc. 







Imperative Mood. 
Kill thou, do thou, etc., hill. 






SiNGULAB. 




Plural. 




Masc. and 
Fern. 


RESPECTPUIi. 

Masc. and Fern. 


Masc. and 
Fern. 


Respectful. 
Masc. and Fern. 


Tsa 

Su \ 
So J 


mar 
marin 


marta, mar- 
sa, marzi 

maritan 


toh* 

tim 
tima 


mariu 
marin 


martau, ma- 
riusa 

marinsa 



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64 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



Subjunctive Mood. 
Present : I may hill, or if I kill, etc. 



SlNGULAB. 


Pltjbal. 


B6 


mara, niarahai, or ai 


as 


marau, maravai, or 




mara 




ai marau 


Tsa 


marak, marakai, or ai 


tobi 


mariv, marivai, or 




maiak 




ai mariv 


Su \ 


mari, mai^ai, or ai 


tim 1 


maran, maranai, or 


So J 


mari 


timaj 


ai maran 



Past (indefinite) : did I Mil, or if I hilled, etc. 



Bo' 


maraha, or ai maraha 


as 


marabau, or ai ma- 
rahau 


Tsa 


marahak, or ai mara- 


tohJ 


marihiu, or ai mari- 




hak 




hiu 


Sul 
So J 


marihe, or ai marihe 


tim 1 
tima J 


marahan, or ai ma- 
rahan 



Perfect : I may have hilled, etc. 



Me 



Asi, ete.j 



asi mormnt, etc., same as Future Perfect, Indica- 
tive Mood. 



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VERBS. 



65 



Pluperfect : had I hilled, or •/ 1 had killed, etc. 


Me • \ 




Asi 

Tam^ • 
Tami 


asihe, or ai asihe ftsihe, or ai Ssihe 


mormut (sing, masc.) mormats (sing, fern.) 


Timau . 




Tse 


asihet, or ai asi- asihet, or ai asi- 




het mormut „ het mormats „ 


Tohi 


asiheva, or ^i asi- asiheva, or ai asi- 




heva mormut „ heva mormats „ etc. 



Causative Verbs. 

96. These are formed from the simple verbs by changing 
the infinitive termination -un into -an, and adding -dwun; 
as, pahun, to go, pakandwun, to cause to go; karuny to do, 
karandvmn, to cause to do; ratun, to seize, ratandwun, to 
cause to seize; tsatun, to cut, taatandwuny to cause to cut; 
khanun, to dig, khanandwun, to cause to dig; kheun, to eat, 
khearidvmn or khedwun, to cause to eat, to feed ; dorun, to run, 
darandtoun, to cause to run. 

97. Some verbs have a shortened causative form in use ; 
as, atsun, to enter, tadnun (for atsandwun), to cause to enter ; 
lagun, to be attached or applied, Idgun, to cause to be attached, 
to attach or apply; marun, to die, mdrun, to cause to die, to 
kill ; dazun, to burn, zdlun, to cause to bum ; cheun, to drink, 
chedwun, to cause to driiik ; kheun, to eat, khedwun, to cause 
to eat; phatun, to break (of itself), phdtawun, to cause to 
break ; khaaun, to ascend, khdrun, to cause to ascend ; shongun, 
to sleep, to lie down, adwun or ahongandtoun, to cause to lie 
down. 

98. A few verbs have different words in use as causati ves ; 
thus, wothun, to rise, wothandwun or tulun, to cause to rise, 

p 



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60 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

to lift Up ; piun, to fall, pdumn or trawun^ to cause to fall, to 
throw down. 

99. A causative can be treated in the same way as a 
simple verb, by changing the infinitive termination -un into 
-an, and adding -awun, aud thus making it into a double 
causative. A few such verbs are in use; as, hheawun, to 
feed, khedwandumn, to cause one to feed another; pTidtatoun, 
to break something, phdtandtDun, to cause one to break some- 
thing; tulun, to lift up, tulandtoun, to cause one to lift up 
something. 

100. Examples of causative verbs — 
Bachun, to escape ; bachduoun ; ha^hdwandwun, 
Behun, to sit down ; hehandwun ; hehandwandwun. 
Bozun, to hear, to understand; hozandwun; hozandwan- 

dwun, 

Diun, to give ; didwun ; didwandwun. 
Doruriy to run ; dorandwun ; dorandwandwun, 
Karun, to do ; karandumn ; karandwandwun. 
Marun, to die ; mdrun ; mdrandivun. 
Piun, to fall ; pdwun ; pdwandwun. 

Passive Verbs. 

101. The rule for the formation of the passive voice is 
most simple and regular. The termination -un of the infini- 
tive is changed into -ana, which remains uninflected, and 
this is accompanied by the verb yiun, or yun^ to come, in- 
flected to agree with its nominative in person, gender, and 
number. 

Example — 

Marun, to ktlL 

Marana yiun, to be killed. 

Bo chhus marana yiwan, I am being killed. 

Bo as marana yiwan, I was killed. 

£6 yima marana yiw&n, I shall be killed. 



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VERBS. 67 

Indicative Mood. 
Marana yiun, to he killed. 
Present : J, etc., am being killed. 
Bo chhus marana yiwan, I (masc.) am being killed 
„ chhas „ „ I (fern.) „ „ 

Ts a chhuk „ . „ thou (masc.) art being killed 
„ chhak „ „ thou (fem.) „ „ 

Su chhu „ „ he is being killed 

So chhe „ „ she „ „ 

As chhi „ „ we (masc.) are being killed 

„ chhe „ „ we (fem.) „ „ 

Toh? chhiva „ „ you (masc.) are being killed 

„ chheva „ „ you (fem.) „ „ 

Tim chhi „ „ they (masc.) are being killed 

Tiina chhe „ „ they (fem.) „ „ 

Imperfect : J, etc., was being killed. 
Bo osus marana yiwan, I (masc.) was being killed 
„ osas „ „ I (fem.) „ „ 

etc. etc. etc. 

Past (indefinite) ; /, etc., was killed. 
Bo as marana, I (masc.) was killed 
* „ ayes „ I (fem.) „ 

etc. etc. 

Past Perfect : J, etc., have been killed. 
Bo chhus amut marana, I (masc.) have been killed 
„ chhas amats „ I (fem.) „ „ 

etc. etc. etc. 

Pluperfect : J, etc., had been killed. 
Bo osus amut marana, I (masc.) had been killed 
„ osas ama'S „ J (fem.) „ „ 
etc. etc. etc. 



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68 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



Future : J, etc., shall he killed. 

66 yima marana, I shall be hilled 
Ts a }'ik „ thou wiU be hilled 

etc. etc. etc. 

The above will be sufficient by way of example to show 
how the passive voice of verbs is formed. As the verb yiun 
alone is conjugated, the principal parts of this verb are now 
subjoined. 

102. Yiun, to come. 

Boot : yi (a). 
Infinitive : yun, yiun, to come. 
Present participle : yiwan, coming. 

yinuk, of coming. 

Conjunctive participle : yit, having come. 

Past participle : amut (sing, masc), come. 

amats (sing, fern.), come. 

araat^ (plu. masc), come. 

amntsa (plu. fem.), come. 

> a comer, one about to come. 



Nouns of agency: I y?''*^*'^' I. 
^ yinawun, J 



Indicative Mood. 

Present (regular) : J, etc., am coming. 

Bo chhus, bo chhas yiwan, I am coming , etc. 

Imperfect (regular) : J, etc., was coming. 
B6 osus, bo osas yiwan, I was coming, etc. 

Perfect (regular) ; I have come, etc. 



Bo chhus 
Ts «a chhuk 
Su chhu 



amut, I have come 
(sing, masc.) 



bo chhas ") . , 7. , 

, . . i amats, I have come 
tsa chhak y 



so chhe J 



(sing, fem.) 



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VERBS. 



69 



Pluperfect (regnlar) : I had come, etc. 



Bo osus ) 

Ts a osuk S amut (sing, masc.) 

Su OS J 



bo osas \ 

tsa osak V amats (sing, fern.) 

so OS J 



Past Indefinite : J, etc., came. 



SiNGULAB. 


Pltjrat.. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Bo as 
Tsa ak 

S u au, or aw 


bo ayas 
tsa ayak 
so ayi 


as ay 
toh^ ova 
tim ay 


as ayi 
toM ayiva 
tima ayi 



Pluperfect : J, etc., had come (used also as Subjunctive), 



Bo ayos 
Ts a ayok 
Su ayov, or 
ayev 




as ayeyi 
toh^ ayeyiva 
tima ayeyi 



Future : J, etc., vjill come. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Bo 


yima 


as 


yimau 


Tsa 


yik 


t61i> 


yiyiu 


Su' 




tim 1 




So J 


yiyi 


tima J 


ym 



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70 



KASHMIR! GRAMMAR. 



Future Continuous (regular) : I, etc., shall he coming. 

Bo asa yiwan | as fisau yiwan 

Future Perfect (regular) : J, etc., shall have come. 



Bo asa amut, bo asa amats 



as asau amat^, as asau ama- 
tsa, etc. 



Imperative Mood. 
Come thou, etc. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Tsa 

So J 


yi (yurhvala) 

yiyin 


t6h> 
tim 1 
tima/ 


yiyiu 
yiyiii 



Subjunctive Mood. 
Present (regular) : If I go or may go. 





Bo ai yima, etc. 
Past : did J, etc., go. 




Singular. 


Plural. 


Bo 
Tsa 

Sn\ 
So J 


yimaha 
yihak 

yiyihe 


as 
toh* 
tim 1 
tima J 


yimahau 
yiyihiu 

yihan 



Pronominal Affixes. 
103. Pronominal aflBxes, representing all the personal 
pronouns except the first person plural, are added to the 
various parts of the verb in each tense of each mood ; and, 



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VERBS. 



71 



when tlins joined to a verb, they may be the accusative, the 
dative, or the agentive of it. 

These affixes are constantly used, and, unless they are 
thoroughly understood, they will always be a source of con- 
fusion. The following table and examples will help to 
explain them : — 

104. Pronominal Affixes joined to Verbs, 





SlNQULAB. 


Plural. 


Per- 
son. 


Ag. for past 

tense of trans. 

verbs ("by 

me, thee, 

him, you, 

them"). 


Acc.forpres. 

and fut. 

tenses of 
trans, verbs. 


Acc. for past 
tense of trans. 

verbs ("I, 
thou, he, you, 
they, killed, 

etc., by"). 


Dat. for all 

tenses ("to 

me, thee, 

him, you, 

them"). 


Ag. Acc. Dat. 
for all tenses. 


1st 

2nd 

3id 


-m 

-t 

-n 


-m 

-t(i) 

-n(8) 


-S 
-k 
-n 


-m 
-i 

-s 


-va 
-k 



105. Accusative Pronominal Affixes used with Verb in 
the Present Tense, 
tse, thee, or bo chhusai maran 

®.' _ '?" „ „ chhusan 
so, her, 

toh^, you, „ „ chhusava 

tim, 1 

tima,/ 

tse, thee, or bo chhasai maran 

su, him,^ 

so, her, 

t6h», you, „ „ chhasava 

!°^' > them, „ 5, chhasak 
l^tima,] 



Bo chhus mfiran, I 
(masc.) am Jcilling 



B6 chhas maran, I 
(fem.) am killing 



n,\ 

^» » »» 
them, „ „ chhusak 

hee, or 
um,\ 
^^er,j " 



chhasan 



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72 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



Ts a cbhuk maran, 
thou (masc.) art 
killing 



Ts a cbhak maran, 
thou (fern.) art 
killing 



me, me, or tsa chhuham marSn 
su, him,] 
so, her, 

*^°^' ^ them, „ „ chhuhak 






chhuhan 



ima,J 



\ tima, 



me, me, or tsa chbabam m&ran 
su, him,] 
so, her, 

+'iTri ^ 

' ^ them, „ „ obbabak 






cbbaban 



Uima,J 



Su obbu maran, he 
is killing 



f me, me, or su cbbum mar&n 

tee, thee, „ „ cbbui „ . 

««• f -'} „ „ chhun „ 

- SO, her,) 

toW, yott, „ „ obbuva „ 

. ' > them, „ „ cbbuk „ 
. tima,j 



So cbbe maran, she 
is killing 



As obbi maran, we 
(masc.) are killing 



me, me, or so obbem maran 
tee, thee, „ „ cbbei „ 

«?' H „ .. chhea .. 
so, her, J 

tob^, you, „ „ cbbeva „ 

™' V them, „ „ obbek „ 
ltima,J ' 

tee, thee, or as cbbi tharan tea 

sn, him,) ,, . 

y „ „ cbbm „ 
so, her, J 

t6b% you, „ „ obbiva „ 

tim, 1 

timaj 



them, „ „ cbhik 



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VERBS. 



73 



As ohhe maran, toe 
(fern.) are killing 



T6li> chhiva maran, 



, su, hiniy) 
you (masc.) are ^ so, her, J 
hilling 



tse, thee, or as chhei maran 

su, him.) 11 . 

7„ „ chhen „ 
so, her, J 

t6h^ you, „ „ ohheva „ 

I^' I them, „ „ chhek „ 
tima,J 

' me, me, or ioh} cbliivom maran 



jso, 
tim, 



chhivon 



I I them, „ „ ohhivok 

t tima,J 



Toh^ chheva maran, 
you (fern.) are ^ so, 
killing 



me, me, or ioh} chhevom maran 
su, him,] 
her. 






^"'' \ them, „ 
,tima,J 



chhevon 
chhevok 



Tim chhi maran, 
they (maso.) are 
killing 



me, me, or tim chhim maran 

tse, thee, „ „ chhi „ 

««. IH „ „ ohhin „ 

80, her, J 

toh^ you, „ „ chhiva „ 



tim, \ 
, tima,J 



them. 



chhik 



Tima chhe 
they (fern. 
killing 



me, me, or tima chhem maran 



tse, thee. 



chhet 



e maran, su, him,) 1 1 . 

)m.) are ^ so, her, J 



toh^, you, „ „ chheva 

*™' }them, „ „ chhek 
tima,j 



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74 



KASHMIR! GRAMMAR. 



106. Dative Pronominal Affixes used with Verb in 
the Present Tense, 



Bo chhus diwan, I 
(maso.) am giving tohi, „ you, 
timan, ,, them, 



' tee, to thee, or bo chhusai diwaii 

tas, „ ^tw,Acr,etc., „ „ chhusas „ 
„ „ chhusava „ 
„ „ chhusak ,, 



Bo chhas diwan, I 
(fern.) am giving 



' tee, to thee, or bo chhasai diwan 
tas, „^im,etc., „ „ cbhasas „ 
tohi, „ you, „ „ ehhasava „ 

timan, „ them, „ „ chhasak „ 

Tsa chhuk diwan, f me, to me, or tea chhubam diwan 

thou (masc.) awitas, „ M'm,etc., „ „ chhiihas „ 
giving [timan,,, them, „ „ clihuhak „ 

Ts a chhak diwan, f me, tome, or tea chhabam diwan 

thou (fem.) ar<< tas, ,,him,QiQ., „ „ chhahas „ 
giving \ timan, „ them, „ „ cbhahak „ 



Su cbbu diwan, he 
is giving 



So ohbe .diwan, she 
is giving 



As ebbi diwan, we 
(masc.) are giving 



me. 


tome. 


or su cbhum diwan 


tee, 


„ thee. 


„ „ cbhui 


tas. 


„ Aim, etc. 


, „ „ cbbus 


tobi, 


„ you. 


„ „ ebbuva „ 


timan 


„ them. 


„ „ cbbnk „ 


me. 


tome. 


or so cbbem diwan 


tee, 


„ thee. 


„ „ cbbei „ 


tas, 


„ him,eto. 


, „ „ cbhes „ 


tobi. 


„ you. 


„ „ cbbeva „ 


timan. 


„ them. 


„ „ cbhek 


tee. 


to thee. 


or as cbbr diwan 


tas. 


„ Am, etc. 


, „ „ cbhis „ 


tohi. 


„ you. 


„ „ ebbiva „ 


^ timan, 


„ them, 


„ „ cbbik „ 



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VERBS. 



75 



As chhe diwan, we 
(fern.) are giving 



^tse, to thee, or as chliei diwan 
tas, „ Am, etc., „ „ chhes „ 
tohi, „ you, „ „ chheva „ 
timan, „ them, „ „ chhek „ 
T6h> chhiva diwan, f me, tome, or to h^ chhivom diwan 

you (masc.) are -I tas, „ him, etc., „ „ chhivos „ 
giving • (timan, „ them, „ „ chhivok „ 

Toll?' chheva diwan, ( me, to me, or toh? chhevom diwan 

you (fern.) are <j tas, „him,etc,,„ „ chhevos „ 
giving (timan, „ them, „ „ chhevok „ 

rme, tome, or tim chhum diwan 

Tim chhi diwan, tee, „ thee, „ „ chhi „ 

they (masc.) are J tas, „him,eto»,„ „ chhis „ 



giving 


tohi, „ you. 


„ „ chhiva „ 




timan, „them. 


•„ „ chhik „ 




me, to me. 


or tima ohhem diwan 


Tima chhe diwan, 


tse, „ thee. 


„ „ chhei 


they (fern.) are 


tas, „ Am, etc. 


, „ „ chhes 


giving 


tohi, „ you. 


„ „ chheva „ 




.timan,,, them. 


„ „ chhek „ 



107. Accusative Pronominal Affixes used with Verb in 
the Future Ttnse. 

tee, thee, or bo marat (tea), or simply marat 

sn, him,] 
T^A^-. T • I. f" »» laaran, „ maran 

Bo mara, i J so, , her, J 

will kill toh^ you, „ „ marava, „ marava 

" . ' [them, „ „ marak, „ marak 

^ tima,J 

me, me, or tea maraham, or simply maraham 

Tsa marak, su, Aem,l . , 

-ihouu,iuU her,}" " '"•''•^^*°' ' 

. ' [them, „ „ marahak, , 
^tima,J 



marahan 
marahak 



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76 



kashmIri grammar. 



Su or 60 
mari. he 
or she 
will kill 



As marau, 
we will kill 






marias, 



manas 



'me, me, or su mariam, or simply mariam 

tse, thee, „ „ man (tse), „ marl 

811, him, 

< so, her, 

t6h>, you, „ „ mariva, „ mariva 

. ' Uhem, „ „ mariak, „ mariak 

tima,J 

tse, thee, or as marot (tea), or simply marot 

„ maron 



su, him\ 

\ „ „ maron, 
60, her, J 

t6h>, you, „ „ marova, 

°^' Uhem, „ „ marok, 
^ tima,J 



marova 
marok 



f me ms, or ioh} maiiom, or simply mariom 

TohJ mariu, su, himA 

"I , 7 ,» », manon, „ manon 

you will ^ so, her, J 

kill 



, ' \them, „ „ mariok, 
( tima,J 



manok 



Tim or ti- 
ma ma- 
ran, they 
(masc. or 
fern.) will 
kill 



me, me, or tim maranam, or szmpZy maranam 

tse, thee, „ „ maranai(tseh), „ maranai 

su, him,) 

. ' _ 7 „ „ maranas, „ maranas 

so, her, J 

ioh}, you, „ „ rafiranava, 

tim, 1^^ 

,tima,J 



maranak. 



maranava 
maranak 



108. Dative Pronominal Affixes used with Verb in 
the Future Tense, 

ftse, to thee, or L6 dapai, or simply dapai 
Bo dapa, jjtas, „him,etc,, „ dapas, „ dapas 
will speak i tohi, „ you, „ „ dapova, „ dapova 
[timeiu, „ them, „ „ dapak, „ dapak 



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VERBS. 



77 



T8adapak,fine, tome or tea dapabam, or simply dapaham 

thou wilt itBS, „ him, Qto,, „ dapahas, „ dapalias 

speak ytima,n, „ them, „ „ dapahak, „ dapaliak 

me, tome, orsu dapi am, or strTipZ^ dapiam 

Su or so tee, „thee, „ „ dapi, „ dapl 

dapi, he tas, ,,/itm, etc., „ dapias, „ dapias 

or «^|t6hi, „yow, „ „ dapiva, „ dapiva 

mtt speak ^i^^^^^^^j^^ ^^ ^^ |dapiak,| ^^ ^^^.^^ 



.__ tas, „A«w,etc., „ dapos, 
we will's.,^. -, 

tohi, „you, „ „ dapova, 



(dapek, J 
tee, to thee, or as dapor, or «e7wpZy dapol 

dapos 
you, „ „ aapova, „ dapova 
timan, „ them, „ „ dapok, „ dapok 
TohMapiu, fme, tome, or toh^' dapiom, or simply dapiom 
you wnZZ-jtas, „him,etc., „ dapios, „ dapios 

speak [timan,,, them, „ „ dapiok „ dapiok 

Tim or ti- f me, tome, or tim dapan am, or «/wipZydapanhain 



As dapaD, 
we u 
speak 



madapan, 
^A6^(masc. 
or fem.) 
will speak 



tee, „ihee, „ „ dapanai, „ 

tas, „^iw,etc., „ dapanas, „ 

tohi, „yoM, „ „ dapanava, „ 

^timan,„<^em, „ „ dapanak „ 



dapanai 
. dapanas 
dapanava 



109. Agentive Pronominal Affixes used with Verb in 
the Past Tense, 

Mor, or more properly mor"*, is the past indef. 3rd pers. 
masG. sing, of mdrun, to kill. Me mor su, or simply morum, he 
was killed by me ; or, as we should say in English, " I killed 
him." 

' morum, he was killed by me, or I killed him 
morut, „ „ „ thee, „ thou killedst him 
„ „ him, „ he killed him 
«» „ you, „ you killed him 



From mor** 
(past in- 
def. masc. \ morun, 
sing.), I moruva, 



killed V moruk, 



them, „ they killed him 



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78 



KASHMIKI GRAMMAR. 



From mor ( moram, she was killed hy me, or I hilled her 

(past in- morat, „ „ „ thee, „ thou killedst her 

def. fern. < moran, „ „ „ him, „ he killed her 

sing.), morava, „ „ „ you, „ you killed her 

killed [ inorak, „ „ „ them, „ they killed her 

From m6r> ( morim, they were killed hy me, or I killed them 
(past in- morit, „ „ „ thee, „ thou killedst them 
def. masc. ^ morin, „ „ „ him, „ he killed them 
pin.), moriva, „ „ „ you, „ you killed them 
killed [ morik, „ „ „ them, „ they killed them 

From mari ( marira, they were killed hy me, or I killed them 
(past in- marit, „ „ „ thee, „ thou killedst them 
def. fern. - marin, „ „ „ him, „ he killed them 
pin.), mariva, „ „ „ you, „ you killed them 

killed [ marik, „ „ „ them, „ they killed them 



110. Accusative Pronominal Affixes used with Transitive 
Verhs in the Past Tense, 

Mor"* is the mascnline singular, neither the agent nor the 
object being definitely stated. 

Morun is "he or it (masc. sing.) killed." Here the n 
represents the agent ; but all that can be known about the 
object beaten or killed is that it is the masculine singular ; 
moranas is " he, it, killed by me ; " or, more literally, " I was 
killed by him or it." 

From morum, I i mormak, I killed thee, literally, thou wast 
killed (masc. < killed hy me 

sing.) ^ 



morim 
(masc. plu.) 



morimava, 


>» 


you. 


99 


you were killed 
hyme 


morimak, 


99 


them. 


99 


they were 


i 








killed hy me 



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VERBS. 



79 



From marim f marimak, I hilled them, literally, they were 
(fern, plu.) \ killed by me 

mortas, thou hilledst me, literally, I was Mlled 

by thee 



From morut, 

thm hilledat mortan, 



him, 
them, 

them, 



he was hilled 
by thee 
„ merit ( mor^'tak, „ them, „ they were 
(masc. plu.)| hilled by thee 

„ marit(fem.rmaritak, „ them, „ they were 

plu.) ^ hilled by thee 

J^rommoruiij^rmoranas, he hilled me, literally, I was hilled 
killed(ma,ac,\ by him 

sing.) I moranak, „ thee, „ thou wast 

y hilled by him 

„ morin [morinava, „ you, „ you were 

(masc. plu.) 1 ^ hilled by him 

From moruva, ( moravas, you hilled me, literally, I was hilled 

by you 
moravan, „ him, , he was hilled 

by you 
„ moriva ( morivak, „ them, „ they were 

(masc. plu.) I hilled by you 

„ mariva | marivak, „ them, „ they were 

(fem. plu.) I hilled by you 

From moruk, ( morlias, they hilled me, literally, I was hilled 

by them 
morhak, „ thee, „ thou wast 

hilledbythem 
morhas, „ me, „ I was hilled 

by them 



you hilled 
(masc. sing.) 



they hilled 
(masc. sing.) 



morak 



(fem. sing.) morhak, 



thee, 



thou wast 
hilledbythem 



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'3^ KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

From morik f m'6YihAYAjheyk(aedyou,lit^raXlj,youwerehil7ed 

(maso.plu.)! by them 

„ marik fmarihava, „ you, „ youwerehilled 

(fern. plu.)| 6y <Aem 

111. Dative Pronominal Affixes used with Verb in 
the Past Tense. 



From dopum, I spoke 



dopmai, I spoke to thee 

. . dopmas, „ „ him or her 

(aoc. masc. smg.,-} ,, 

vooA spoken by me) , . ■. ' " " , 

"^ ^ ^dopmak, „ „ them 

From doput, thou { doptam, thou spakest to ms 

spakest (aco. masc. < doptas, „ „ him 

sing.) (doptak, „ „ them 

dopnam, he spoke to me 

dopnai, „ „ thee 

dopnas, „ „ him 

dopnava, „ „ you 

Idopnak, „ „ them 

From dopuva, you { dopvom, you spoke to me 

spoke (aoc. masc. -j dopvas, „ „ him 

sing.) (dopvak, „ „ them 

'dopliam, they spoke to me 

dopliai, „ „ thee 

dophas, „ „ him 

dophava, „ „ you 

dophak, „ „ them 



From dopun, he spoke 
(ace. masc. sing.) 



From dopnk, they 
spoke (ace. masc 
sing.) 



112. When the past participle is used with the auxiliary 
verb "to be," the participle agrees in number and gender 
with the accusative, but the aflSx is added only to the 
auxiliary verb ; as — 

Me chhu tmchhmut [he, it (masc. sing.), is seen by me], I 



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VERBS. 81 

have seen him; or, me chhum vuchhrnut^ or simply, wicKhmui 
cKhum, 

Me chhe vuchhmats [she (fern, sing.) has been seen by me], 
I have seen her ; or, me chhem vuchhmata, or simply, fmekhmaU 
chhem. 

Ts e chhut vuehhmutj thou hast seen him ; or, vuchhmut ckhut. 

Ts e chhei vuchhmaia, thou hast seen her; or, vuchhmats 
chhet. 

Tdhi ckhuva vuchhmuty you have seen him ; or, tuchhmut 
chhuva, 

Tdhi chkevq vuchhmats, you have seen her; or, vuchhmats 
ehheva. 

Tqmi chhu vuchhmut, he has seen him (ace. masc. sing.) ; 
or, vuehhmut chhun. 

Tqm^ chhe vuchhmats^ he has seen her (ace. fem. sing.) : 
or, vuchhmats chhen, 

Timau chhu vuehhmut, they have seen him (ace. masc. 
sing.) ; or, vuehhmut chhuk. 

Timau chhe vuchhmatsy they have seen her (ace. fem. sing.); 
er, vuchhmats chhek. 

Me 08 vuehhmut, I had seen him (aoc. maso. sing.) ; or, 
vuehhmut osnm. 

Me 08 vuchhmats, I had seen her (aoc. fem. sing.) or, 
vuehhmatj osam, 

Tqm^ OS vuehhmut, he had seen him (ace. masc. sing.) ; or, 
vuehhmut osun, 

Tqmi OS vuchhmats, he had seen her (ace. fem. sing.) ; or, 
vuchhmats osan. 

Tami os vuehhmut, she had seen him (ace. masc. sing.); 
or, vuehhmut oSun, 

Tami os vuchhmats, she had seen her (ace. fem. sing.) ; 
or, vucMmats osan. 

Timau os vuehhmut, they had seen him (ace. masc. sing.) ; 
or, vuehhmut osuk. 

Q 



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82 KjLSHM!b! aSAMMAB. 

Timau os VHchhmats^ they had seen her (aoc. fem. sing.) ; 
or, vuchhmats osak. 

Me dai vuehhmutj I may have seen him (ace. maso. sing.) ; 
or, vuehhmut dsem. 

Me dsi vuchhmats, I may have seen her (aoc. fem. sing.) ; 
or, vuchhmats dsem, 

Tqmi dsi vuchhmui, he may have seen him (aco. masc. 
sing.) ; or, vuchhmut dsen. 

Tqmi dH vuchhmats^ he may have seen her (aco. fem. 
sing.) ; or, vuchhmats dsen. 

Tami dsi vuchhmut, she may have seen him (ace. masc. 
8ing.) ; or, vuchhmut dsen, 

Tami dsi vuchhmats, she may have seen her (ace. fem. 
sing.) ; or, vuchhmats dsen, 

Timau asi vuchhmiut, they may have seen him (ace. masc. 
sing.) ; or, vuchhmut dsek. 

Timau dei vuchhmats, they may have seen her (aoc. fem. 
sing.) ; or, vuchhmatj dsek, 

3^ ai dsihe vuchhmut, if I had seen him (aco. masc. sing.) ; 
or, vuchhmut ai dsihem. 

Me ai dsihe vuchhmats, if I had seen her (aoc. fem. sing.) ; 
or, vuchhmats dsihem. 

Tam^ ai dsihe vuchhmut, as if he had seen him (ace. masc. 
sing.) ; or, vuchhmut ai dsihen, 

Tqmi ai dsihe vuchhmats, if he had seen her (aoc. fem. 
sing.) ; or, vuchhmats dsihen, 

Tami ai dsihe vuchhmut, if she had seen him (ace. masc. 
sing.) ; or, vuchhmut dsihen, 

Tami ai dsihe vuchhmats, if she had seen her (aco. fem. 
sing.) ; or, vuchhmats dsihen, 

Timau ai dsihe vuchhmut, if ^ey had seen him (aco. masc. 
sing.) ; or, vuchhmut dsihek, 

Timau ai dsihe vuchhmats, if they had seen her (aco. fem. 
sing.) ; or, vuchhmats dsihek. 



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VERBS. 83 

113. Observations on the above Pronominal Affixes, 

(1) The verb in the present, imperfect, and future tenses 
agrees with the nominative in number and gender ; and the 
pronominal affix is either its accusative or dative ; as, suh 
chhnrn mdrdn, he is killing me; suh osum mdran^ he was 
killing me ; suh mdram^ he will kill me. 

(2) The past tense of transitive verbs agrees with the 
pronoun that would be in the objective in English, in 
number and gender; and, if there is only one pronominal 
affix, it represents the agent ; and, if there ai*e two, the first 
represents the agent, and the second the accusative or dative ; 
as, tqm^ mor, he killed, — the verb is maso. sing, ; iqm^ mor suh^ 
he killed him, or morun suh ; timau mor suh^ or moruk suh, they 
killed him ; tqm^ mor boh, or morun boh, or moranas, he killed 
me ; tqm^ dop meh, or dopun meh, or dopanam, he said to me. 

(3) In the second person singular of the future tense the 
t, and in the third person plural of the past tense the affix 
-h, are changed into h before an accusative or dative pro- 
nominal affix; as, tsq mdrat suh, with affix, becomes, not 
mdratan, but mdrahan ; timau dop meh becomes dopuk meh, and 
then not dopakam, but dopaham, or dopham, 

(4) The agentive t of the second person singular and va 
of the second person plural of the past tense are inseparable 
from the verb, whether the personal pronoun is used or not 
for the agent. We can say, msh mor suh or morum suh, timau 
mor suh or moruJc suh ; but we cannot say, tse mor suh or ibhi 
mor suh, but tse morut suh or morut suh, tohi moruva suh or 
moruva suh, 

(5) In the third person singular and plural of transitive 
verbs in the future the accusative affixes for the second and 
third persons singular are the same as those for the dative, 
whereas we should have expected t and n respectively. 

(6) The masculine singular of the verb in the past inde- 



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84 KASHMIR! ORAMMAB. 

finite really ends in a very short u sound ; as, mar\ ddj)*" ; and 
hence with the affixes we have morun, dopun; morut, morvk. 
When a second affix is added this u is either changed into a 
or disappears ; as, moranas or momaSy moratas or mortiu ; dopa- 
nam or dopnam, etc. 

114. The verb "to be," with the dative pronominal 
affixes, is constantly used to denote possession, meaning " I 
have," etc., thus — 



Suh chhn meh, 



Present. 

' chhnm, is to me, meaning I have him. 
chhof, „ thee, „ thou hoit 



(masc. sing.) 



etc., or snh^chhns, „ him/her „ he has 



chhuva, „ yoUj „ you have 
^chhuk, „ them, „ they have 



it 



In the same manner — 

So Mem, she is to me, I have her, etc. 
Tim chhim, they are to me, I have them, etc. 
Timq Mem, they (fern.) are to me, I have them (fem.), 
etc. 



Suh OS meh, etc., 



Past. 

osnm, was to me, meaning I had Am, etc. 
osnl, „ thee, „ thouhadst „ 



sing.) 



or suh (masc. s osus, „ him, „ he had 



osuva, „ you, „ you had 
losuk, „ them, „ they had 



In the same manner — 

Soh OS meh, or $dh osqm, she was to me, I had her. 



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VERBS. 85 

Tim a#» meh, or tim osim^ they (masc. plu.) were to me, I 
had them. 

Tima oBa meh^ or tima dsqm, they (fern, plu.) were to me, I 
had them. 

Future. 



Suh asi 
meh, or 
suh 



' ftsiam, will he to me, meaning 1 shall have Am, etc. 

asi or asl, „ thee, „ thou wilt „ 

asias or &sies, „ him, „ he will „ 

asiava or asiva, „ you, „ you wiU „ 
^asiak or asok, „ them, „ they will „ 



In the same manner — 

Tim dsan meh, or tim dsanam, they will be to me, I »hall 
have them, etc. 

Tim dsan tas, or tim asanas, they will be to him, he will 
have them, etc. 

Compound Verbs. 

115. These may be divided into (1) those in which the 
verb expressing the main idea of the compound is joined to 
another verb ; and (2) those in which it is joined to a noun 
or adjective. 

116. Compounds formed with the Past Conjunctive 

Participle. 

(1) Intensives, Formed by adding another verb to the 
past conjunctive participle of what is often the principal 
verb : hadun, to cast out ; hadit tshunun, to cast out alto- 
gether; me t^un mdrit suh, I killed him outright (compare 
nikalna and nihdldena; and mama and mar ddlna, in Urdu). 



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86 eashmZrI grammar. 

Phirit yiun, to return, to come baok; pMrit heun^ to take 
back ; phlrtt gatjihun, to go back, to return. 

(2) PdentiaU, Hehun, to be able ; hekun karU, to be able 
to do ; Bo chJiua yih horn hekdn karit, I am able to do this work; 
Su chhu hekdn wanit. He is able to speak. 

117. There are other forms which, though not strictly 
compound verbs, yet are so closely allied to them that we 
give them here — 

StatistiedU, These are formed by adding a very short » to 
the root of the verb ; thus, Wan^ wan^ chhu gatshdn, He goes on 
his way weeping ; Khe^ khe} su gau vioth, Groing on eating, he 
grew fat. 

The present participle may be used in this way ; as, Su 
chhu gatshdn waddn waddn, He is going away weeping. 

118. Verbi used with another Verb in the Infinitive, 

(1) Inceptives, Heun, to take up, begin; he%m kcurun, to 
begin to do ; Tqm} hiut (or hyut^ Mat lekhun, He began to write 
a letter. 

(2) Desideratives, Yatshun, to desire or wish; yatshun 
karun, to desire to do; Bo chhus yatshdn yih khat lekhun, I 
desire to write this letter, 

(3) Potentials. Tagun, to be able, to have power; tagwn 
karun, to be able to do ; Meh tagiam na gharq handwun, I shall 
not be able (or, have the power) to build a house. Banun, 
to become, to be made ; hanun karun, to be able to do ; Me 
chhu nq handn parun, I cannot read. 

119. Impersonal Verbs, 

The third masculine singular future of gatshun, to go, is 
constantly used as an impersonal verb, meaning " ought," " it 
is necessary ; " gatshi kai-un, ought to do ; Nechivis gatshi hechun 
panun sabaq, A son ought to learn his lesson. Pazi and shobi, 



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TERBS. 87 

it is proper, from pazun and ahchun, are also used as imper- 
sonals ; paei karun, or shchi karunj it is proper to do ; Ts e pazi 
nq apoz toanun. It will not be proper to thee to tell an 
nntruth ; Kdtm shohi nq apox wanun^ It will not be proper to 
any one to tell an untruth, or. No one should tell a lie. 

Peun, to happen, to fall, is also used with the infinitive ; 
peun karun, to happen to do ; Tamis peon hhat lekhun, It hap- 
pened to him to write a letter, or, He happened to write a 
letter. 

120. Verbs used with the Inflected Infinitive. 

(1) Lctgun^ to begin, to apply one's self to ; lagun karani^ 
to begin to do ; Paga lagq yih Mm karani, To-morrow I shall 
begin to do this work. 

(2) The form kairanq kardn implies a condition or dif- 
ficulty, " he does, but . . . ; " Su chhu karanq kardn magar wad^ 
wad\ He works indeed, but he does it weeping. 



NOMINALS. 

121. These are formed by annexing a verb to an unin- 
flected noun or adjective. The verbs mostly used for this 
purpose are karun, to do; diun, to give; yiun, to come; 
kheun, to eat ; heun, to take ; gatshun, to go ; and they may 
be joined to almost any noun or adjective in the language. 
The infinitive agrees in gender with its noun. 
Examples — 

Gdsa kheun, to eat grass, graze. 

Hoshydr gatsjkun, to become clever, awake. 

Hukm diun, to command, order. 

Hukm karun, to convict, sentence, command. 

Kdmirust karun, to dismiss. 

Kdwa diun, to give ear, listen. 



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88 



kashmIkI grammar. 



MtuJUk heun, to smell. 

Nad diun, to call. 

Shruts karu% to clean. 

Tsopa karan\ to keep silent, be quiet. 

Wdth sapadun, to cling. 

Wosh kadufiy to sigh. 

Ydd yiun, to remember. 

Zulm karu% to oppress. 

Zuth karun^ to extend. 



Formation of Tenses. 

122. As already remarked at the beginning of Chapter V., 
most of the verbs in Kashmiri are very regular. The only 
changes of vowels and consonants likely to cause any diffi- 
culty are those that are made for the past indefinite and 
pluperfect tenses ; but the following simple rules will assist 
the student to understand these : — 



1. Changes of Vowels. 



123. Examples — 



VOWEL- 

Changbs. 


Inpinitivb. 


Past 
Indefinite. 


Past 

PARiaOIPLB. 


a becomes o 


marun, to kill 


mor 


mormut 




galun, to melt 


gol 


golmut 




ts&ndun, tosearch 


tsond 


tsondmut 




manun, to obey 


mon 


monmut 




mandvLu^toknead 


mond 


mondmut 




tsapun, to hitey 


tsop 


teopmut 




chew 







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VERBS. 



89 



Vowel- 
Changes. 


Infinitive. 


Past 
Indefinite. 


Past* 
Participle. 




lagun, to plough, 


log 


logmut 




cUtach 








layun, to heat 


loy {or loe) 


loymut 




tsarun, to gather 


teor 


tsormnt 




watun, to arrive 


wot 


wotmut 




kasuD, to shave 


kos 


kosmnt 


a becomes o 


pakun, to go 


pok 


pokmut 




maluD, to ruh 


mol 


molmnt 




chhalun, to wash 


chbol 


chholmut 




marun, to die 


mor 


mormut 




kartin, to do 


kor 


kormut 




katun, to «pfn 


kot 


kotmut 




Ishasun, to ascend 


khot 


khotmut 




m&ndmijtoiram- 


mond 


niondmut 




pU 








ratun, to take 


rot 


rotmnt 




tsalun, to run 


teol 


tsolmut 




away 








wanun, to speak 


won 


wonmut 




wadun, to weep 


wod 


wodmut 




walun, to dress 


wol 


wolmnt 




one's self 








watun, to dose 


wot 


wotmut 


€ becomes u 


shemn, to adorn 


shur, sbjur 


sburmut, sh} ur- 


or yu 






mut 




phemn, to turn 


phur 


phurmut 




menun, to mea- 


myur 


mynrmut 




sure 








nerun, to go out 


draw, nyiir 


dramnt, nyur- 
mut 




melun, to meet 


myiir 


myurmut 



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90 



kashmIbI grammar. 



VOWEL- 
CHANaSS. 


INPIKITIVK. 


Past 

Indefinite. 


Past 
Pabtioiplb. 


e becomes u 


hekun, to he able 


hyuk 


hyukmut 


or^^w 


lekhun, to write 


lyukh 


lyukhmut 




thekun, to boast 


thyuk 


thyukmut 




tsetun, to crush 


teyut 


tsyutmut 




yyendun, to prac- 


vyund 


vyundmut 




tise 








veteun, to he con- 


vyuts 


vyutemut 




tained 








lewun, to lick 


lyu 


lynmut 




netun, to shear 


nyut 


nyntmut 




heun, to take 


hynt 


hyutmut 


becomes u 


bozun, to hear 


buz 


buzmut 




losun, to he tired 


lus 


lusmut 




sozun, to send 


suz 


suzmut 




roshun, to he 


rush 


rushmut 




angry 








khotsun, to fear 


khute 


khutsmut 




poshun, to prevail 


push 


pushmut 




rozun, to remain 


rud 


rudmut 


becomes w or 


phokun, to hlow 


phuk 


phukmut 


remains 6 


wothun, to rise 


wuth 


wuthmut 




mongun, to ash 


mong 


mongmnt 




shongun, to sleep 


shong 


shongmut 


I becomes u 


chlrun, to squeeze 


chur 


churmut 




zilun, to shavcy 


ziil 


zulmiit 




scrape 






i becomes yu 


bihun, to sif 


byut 


byutmut 




gindun, to play 


gyund 


gyundmut 




pihnn, to grind 


pyuh 


pyuhmut 




diTin, to give 


dyut 


dyutmut 



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VERBS. 



. 91 



VOWEL- 

Chanoes. 


Infinitivb. 


Past 
Indefinite. 


Past 
Participle. 


u remains u 


lutun, to roh 


lilt 


liitmut 




biizun, to roast 


buz 


buzmut 




lurun, to throw 


liir 


lunnut 




down 






a remains u 


pu8hiirun,|/o en- 
pnsharun,/ /rM«< 


pushiir 


pushurmut 










wuchhun, to see 


wuchh 


wuchhmut 




tulun, to lift up 


tul 


tulmut 



2. Changes of Consonants. 



124. Examples- 



consonant- 
Chanqes. 


Infinitive. 


Pluperfect 
(3rd Pers. Masc. Sing.). 


d becomes z 


ladun, to had 


lazov, or lazeyov 


^ become y 
t \ become ch 


mongnn, to ash 
shongun, to lie down 
salun, to flee 
chalun, to wash 
pakun, to walk 
lekhun, to write 


monjov, or monjeyov 

shonjov 

sajov, or sajeyov 

chajov, or chajeyov 

pachov, or pacheyov 

lechhov 


M 


khatun, to conceal 
phatun, to split, sink 
watun, to close 


khachov, or khacheyov 
phachov, or phacheyov 
waohov 




behun, to sit 


bechov 


* Ibecome ^, s 


khasun, to ascend 
losun, to he tired 


khatsov, or khatseyov 
losov, or losyov 




watan, to arrive 


wateov, or watseyov 



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92, 



kashmTb! qrahmar. 



108 c3 "^ 



ll 

IS 



Ik 



s > . 



p3i 
p3 



a I -09 -fl IS ^ 






a ■»> -s 

p 

!> a a -g 

rt3 P< ig8 






•3 rn 



t 



.'S^ 



ri4 



1-3 



PS 






•■5 -2 •*^ .1^ 



6 



-s^ 



•IS-** 



c8» 

a"* ^ .s •© 



a eS. «• 

,4 S P4 



5=^ 

•C8 c3 rtS ,J1 



'2 9 2 
3 S.^ 






3 



•« Q ITS 


o ft 



,4?=^ 



I 

I 



O O -S 

5 s^ fl 



r- C^ CO 



ic6 ■« 



P4 103 



•♦3 

'in ^ ^ 

© •© .M 



g- a a 

(4 Pi >^ 



sad 
irt irt ,3 

fe ^ ^ 




.2 



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INDECLINABLE WORDS. 93 



CHAPTER VI. 

indeclinable words. 

1. Adverbs. 

126. The following table will show the connection between 
a quintuple series of adverbs, and adjective pronouns used as 
adverbs, with the demonstrative, interrogative, and relative 
pronouns. The personal pronoun mh is often used as the 
correlative of the relative pronoun ytw. 

Of the words in the table those in the columns of Time 
and Place are proper adverbs, and are indeclinable ; but their 
number can be increased and their meanings modified by 
such terminations as -dm, -<dm, -tdmat, -an, meaning generally 
" till," " up to ; " as, yotdm, kotdm, Jcotdmat ; yordm, yotdn, 
yutdn. Tot and yor, etc., with their affixes, are also used for 
time; yutdn meaning "until," "as long as," etc. Other 
affixes are -a, -t, -it, -ut, -at, -oi, -ui, which generally intensify 
the meanings ; as, kut dur, or Jcota dur, how far ; yati, yeti, yiti, 
yatit, yetit, yitit, just here, here in this very place; so yot, 
yotut, yor, yuri ; ydm, as soon as ; tdm, then ; ydmatai, tdmatai, 
just then, -t, -at, -ot, -ui, are also added to yuth, yut, yata, etc. ; 
yuthui or yuthoi, in this very manner ; so yutui or yutoi, yitaai, 
etc. 

Tyuth, hyuth, hyuth, tyuth ; yut, hut, kut, tyut; and yaU, 
hats, kata, tats, are regularly declined. The plural of yut, etc., 
will mean "many;" as, yU^ lafz, so many words. TaU is 
often used for " more ; " as, yatj^ tjer, more late, latter. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



94 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 







1 


«* 


. "^ 6 


-€ 


g> 


f 


6 


1 




1 


Ml 


1 


s 


8* 


i 


1 


Is 


,00 






B 


••* 




J 


J S 


.8 


1 'l.'=§ 


si 


'€ 


^ 




,00 


"t § i^ '- B. 
%^^ ^"^ 


ii* 


-€-2 


i 


i 3 ' 




r§ 


o r** 


^ 


g« 




S 




if 


a 
1 5 


'■4-3 


^ Q 


-« 






1' 


1' 


j 


iS 


l.l. 




1 


-< 
•J 

a 




? s 

"S a 5§ 


1 

1 


It 
U 






1' 


^ Interroga- 
tive. 




0-. 


1 


5 £• 

•o o 






1e' 


r^ 


ri4 M 


,i*J 


M M 


,14 ^ 


— 


p24 


•» 








I'-S 


ft < 


r^ 








J3 






%t . 








^ g* 


3 






H S K) 

§1^ 




106 


•IH 


? o 


L 




-21 


|fi 


?3 '^ 


•^ o 


"5 


•o o 


>> s 




c8 


rjq 


Is r^a 


rJ:^ 


^ r^ 


^ -a 


— 


^ 


5 


oT 


- a 








«5 


I-- 


§ !2 


•43 


















•o O 






CQI 






1 


1 








1 

a 



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INDECLINABLE WORDS. 95 

128. (1) Belating to Time, 

Ada, then. 

Ahhir, patau Idhan, at last. 

Arva pata, at length. 

Az, aji, to-day. 

Dokai, prat doha, MmesJia, always. 

Kolkiet, day after to-morrow. 

Otar, or utavy day before yesterday. 

Paga, to-morrow. 

ParuSj last year. 

Bat, last night. 

ItetSf mbJias, suhhanas, early, in the morning. 

Tawa, yesterday. 

YihuSf this year. 

Za, ever. 

Za na^ never. 

Za nata za, some time or other. 

129. ' (2) Belating to Place. 

Andar, andara, within, inside. 
Apor, aparkun, that side. 
Dachan Jcun, right-hand side. 
Har Jcuni, everywhere. 
Khowur kuTiy left-hand side. 
Kuni, anywhere. 
Kuni na, nowhere. 
Nehar, nehara, outside. 
Yipor, yipor kun, this side. 

130. (3) Belating to Manner. 
Ak ak, singly, one by one. 

Aki latiy or aki pheri, once, one time. 
Algoh^, by chance. 



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96 kashmIr! qbammar. 

Dewa, perhaps. 
Keta pothy how. 
Padi petha padt, or padi path padi^ step by step, 

by degrees. 
Sefha^ much, very. 
Sot 8oty slowly. 
Tqhdn takdUy quickly. 
Taor, much. 
Wdra, skilfully, well. 
Wdra wdra, slowly. 
Yaqman, in truth, cei-tainly. 
Yat8, more. 
Tot, only. 
Titi poth, in this way. 

131. The common adverbs of affirmation and negation in 
use are awq, yes, and wa, no ; but others are also used which 
are more respectful — 

Ahansq, yes, sir (spoken to an equal or superior). 

Ahanhin, yes, madam (spoken to an equal or superior). 

Nqdidy respectful, used in speaking to a mother or elderly 
female. 

Nau (masc), ndi (fem.), no certainly. 

With the imperative ma is used instead of nq; as, ma Arar, 
do not ; ma wan, do not speak. 

132. (For the adverbial participle, see the verb.) 

2. Prepositions. 

133. Prepositions in Eashmtrt are used after nouns, which 
they govern in the dative (locative) or genitive case. Those 
that govern the genitive case are mostly nouns used as pre- 
positions. 

The following are the principal prepositions in general 
use: — 



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INDE0LIN13LE WORDS. 97 

134r. (1) Hiose governing Nouns in the Dative or 
Locative Case. 
Andar, in. 

Andiqnd, around, alongside, 
Andhin, close by. 
Athi, by hand. 
Bardhar, equal to. 
BontaJcani, in front of. 
Bront, or honth, before. 
Dachanhuny on the right-hand side. 
Hiuhy hyuh, or hish^ like. 
Ket, upon, in. 

Khowarhun, on the left-hand side. 
Kin, by the side of. 
Kiut, kitSj for. 

Kun, towards, in the direction of. 
ManZj in. 

Manzhdgy in the middle. 
NaJchq, near. 
Nahhatal, close by. 
Nazdih, near. 
NehaVy outside. 
Nish, near. 

Pdsa, for the sake of. 
Path, pathkani, behind. 
Peth, upon. 
San, with. 

Sivoi, without, except. 
Tal, below, under. 
Waroi, except. 

135. (2) Those governing Nouns in the Genitive Case. 
Badalq, in place of. 
Bdpatj about, concerning* 

H 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



98 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

Khotq, than, compared with. 

Khotirq, for, on account of (vide par. 138). 

Ndwq^ for the sake of, for the name of. 

Tarafy towards ; tarafq, from towards. 

Waslla, by means of. 

Wcmlasot, by means of. 

136. (3) Those governing Nouns in the Ablative Case. 

Andarq, from, from under or in. 
Bdpat, concerning, about. 
Khotirq, for the sake of. 
Manzq, from, from inside. 
Manzhdgq, from, from the middle. 
Neharq, from, frcjm outside. 
Nishi, from, from near. 
Pethq, from, from upon. 
Bust, without, not having. 
San, with. 

Sot^, with, by means of. 
Tarafqy from, from the side of. 

137. Generally those prepositions govern the ablative case 
which denote motion from ; and most of the prepositions 
which govern the locative case, denoting place, by having an 
a or i added to them, will then denote motion from that place. 
Thus, garas andar means ** in the house ; " but garq andarq 
is " from in the house." 

138. When the prepositions nishi and sdn are used with 
singular nouns of the second declension, which are names of 
persons or animals, except proper nouns, then they take the 
s ; as, Suh chhu sahihas nishi dmut. He has come from the sahib ; 
but when the nouns represent inanimate objects, then they 
fcimply take q before these prepositions ; as, Suh chhu hdghq 
nishi dmuty He has come from the garden. 



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.INDECLINABLE WORDS. 



99 



Nouna used with the preposition khotirq, if they represent 
animate objects, take the regular genitive, sund, hund, etc. ; 
as, sahib^aqnd} khotirci, for the sake of the sahib ; but when 
they represent inanimate objects they take only the a ; as, 
kalamq Jchotira, for the sake of a pen. 

(For further remarks on the prepositions, see Syntax;) 
139. Besides the above prepositions, the following Arabic 
and Persian prefixes are sometimes used, especially by Mu- 
hammadans, with words from those languages : — 



Az, from, by. 

'J.n, from. 

*Aldy upon, above. 

Bd, with. 

Ba, in, by. 

Bar, on, in, at. 

Barde, f )r, on account of. 

Be^ without. 

Bild, without. 



Dar, in, within. 

Fi, in. 

Uldj except, besides. 

Ka, according to. 

La, Zi, to, for. 

Ma\ with. 

Min, from. 

Mutdhiq, conformable to. 

Mujih or hamujih^ by means of. 



3. Conjunctions. 

140. There is nothing to be noted particularly about the 
conjunctions. Of those following, the ones in the first list 
are peculiar to Kashmiri, and those in the second list are 
common to both Kashmiri and Hindustani, and are chiefly 
used by the Muhammadans : — 



(1) Conjunctions used only in Kashmiri, 



Ai, or harga, if. 
Ada, then. 
Beyi, again. 

Kydzi, or tikydzi, for, be- 
cause. 



Naia, otherwise. 
Tq, and. 
Tt, also. . 

Tadante, although. 
Ydtai, either, or. 



^tlfl^'6A 



100 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR, 



Yod, yadante^ yadtoai, yadwa- 
naiy although, notwith- 
standing. 



Tuth, in order that. 
Zan, as if. 
Zif that. 



141. (2) Conjunctions common to Kashmiri and 
Hindustani, 



Agar, gar, if. 
Agarchi, although. 
Amma, but, moreover. 
Balki, but, on the contrary. 
Goya, as if. 

HdJdnki, whereas, notwith- 
standing. 



Hanoz, yet, still, 
Harchand, although. 
Lekin, but. 
Magar, but, except. 
Pas, therefore, thence. 
Par, but, yet. 
Td, or, either. 



4. Interjections. 

142. The words placed before nouns in the vocative 
case are — 

Ed! ) 



Eai! 
Hatd! 
Hato! 
Hey of 
Ho! 



^ masc. 



Used generally to inferiors. 



1 



Hatoif ] 

Hatdi! \ fern. 

Hey oil 

Hatahaf masc. 

Habinf ) 

Hatahinf } 

Hatasqt masc. and fern. 

Haz! masc. 1 

Haded! fern. S-Used in addressing supeiiors. 

Shdh! masc. I 



fem. 



Used in addressing 
equals. 



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NUMBERS. 



101 



Hdz ! for hazrat / saint ! and is used only by Muham- 
madans. Ded, mother; hin for heni, sister; «a for $dhib or 
sdhiba ; $hdh for jpddshah ; and hd for hoi, brother. 

143. The following are some of the words often heard as 
exclamations used by the Kashmiris : — 



Aftos ! alas I 

Ai! O ! Ai Khuddya / or Ai 

Khuddyo ! O God I 
Ahrdi t bless you ! 
Baldi lagel thy misfortune 

be upon me I 
Hdi t alas I 
Hosh Tear ! \ 
Khaharddr ! J 



take care ! 



Kya zabar ! how good ! won- 
derful ! 

Kya gom ! what has happeneel 
to me I 

Shdhdsh I or ahdhbdshf well 
done! . 

Tauhq I shame ! repent ! fie ! 

Wdwdl Ofiel 

Wdi ! alas ! 



CHAPTER VII. 



NUMBERS* 



1. Cardinals. 
144. Although numerals are adjectives, yet, as there are 
many points in them that need explanation, it is, perhaps, 
more convenient to treat of them in a separate chapter. 
145. The cardinal numbers are — 



1 = ah, 

2 = «a, or zqh. 

3 = tre, or treh. 

4 = Upr. 

5 = pdnUy or 'ponts. 

6 = tihe, or ekeh, 

7 = eat. 

8 = bth. 



9 = nau. 

10 = da, dah, 

11 = ha, hah. 

12 = 6a, hah. 

13 = trua, iruah. 

14 = tsoda, tsddah. 

15 = panda, pandah, 

16 = ihura^ $hurah. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



102 



kashmTri grammar. 



17 = sada, aadah, 

18 = arda, ardah. 

19 = kunawuh, 

20 = wuh. 

21 = akaicuh, 

22 = zqtowuh. 

23 = trowuh. 

24 = tsowuh, 

25 = puntsq. 

26 = iihewuh. 

27 = mtdwuh, 

28 = d<fe(wi?MA. 

29 = kunqtrq. 

30 = <ra. 

31 = akqtrq, 

32 = do^ra. 

33 = /tVra. 

34 = tsoyitra, 

35 = pdntsqtrq, 

36 = sheyitrq, 

37 = satqtrq, 

38 = arqtrq. 

39 = kunqtoji, 

40 = tsatqji. 

41 = akqtqji, or akqtoj. 

42 = doitdji, doitoj. 

43 = <i^y», /iVq;. 

44 = tsoitojif taoitdj, 

45 = pdntsqioji. 

46 = sheitoji. 

47 = aatqtoji. 

48 = arqtqji, 

49 = A;t«naw?an2ra. 

50 = pantsa. 



61 = akqwanza, or akwanz. 

62 = (iuiranza, or duwanz. 

53 = trewanza, or <rewaw«. 

54 = tsutoanza, or tsuwanz. 

65 = pdntsqwanza, or pants- 
wanz, 

56 = ahiwanza, or ahiwanz. 

57 = satqwanza, or satwanz, 

58 = arqwanza, or au^anaj. 

59 = A;ttwaAdfA. 

60 = «Ae«^. 

61 = akqhoth. 

62 = duhoth. 

63 = tr'ehoth. 

64 = f«M^d{^. 

65 = pdntsqhdth. 

66 = shihoth. 

67 = aatqhoth, 

68 = arqhoth. 

69 = kunqsatat. 

70 = satat 

71 = akqsatai, 

72 = dusatat. 

73 = tre$atat. 

74 = tmaatat 
76 = pantmsatat. 

76 = shisatat 

77 = safqaatat, 

78 = arqsatati 

79 = A;M»a«Al<A. 

80 = 1^*^^. 

81 = akqshlth. 

82 = duahlth, doiafnth. 

83 = triahlth. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



NUMBERS. 



103 



8-1: = tsushith, 

85 = pdntsqshlth. 

86 = shishith. 

87 = satashlth. 

88 = arashvh, 

89 = hunqnamat, 

90 = namat. 

91 = aJcqnamaty or aknum, 

92 = dunamaty or dunam. 

93 = trqnamat, tr'enamat^ or 

94 = taunamat, or ^unam. 

95 = pantsqnamaty or jkwi- 



96 = shinamat, or shinam. 

97 = saiqnnmat, or sa^nam. 

98 = arqnamaty or amam, 

99 = namqnamat, or namqnam^ 

or nawantt/w. 

100 = Aa<, or ^a^L 

101 = aA; ^a/A ^a a^. 

102 = aA; %a^^ to 2;a. 
1000 = «d«. 
100,000 = Zoc^. 
10,000,000 = A;ror, or karor, 
100,000,000 = abad. 
100,000,000,000 = kharab, or 

innumerable. 



146. In counting, Kashmiris always call one harahat ; this 
is to bring good luck, 

147. Ak is declined like a masculine noun of the second 
declension, but the fem. qch like a feminine noun of the 
third declension. All other numbers follow the plural of 
the first declension. Akoi, or akui, etc , is intensive, meaning 
** only one." 

148. There are two words used to express indefiniteness — 
mara and kJiand, meaning " about ; " the former used with 
numbers, and the latter with weights and measures ; as, 
panddh mara mahiniu, about fifteen men ; namat mara gur\ 
about ninety horses; khdr khand^ about a khar (khar, or 
kharwar, is an ass-load) ; trak khand, about a trak (about six- 
teen traks make a kharwar, and a trak contains about five 
seers). 

149. Indefiniteness can also be expressed by using two 
numbers together without any conjunction ; thus, taor pants 
four or five ; hat zq hat^ one or two hundred. 



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104 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



150. 


2. 


Ordinals. 


First, 


godqnyuk ( 


masc 


.), godanyich (fern.). 


Second, 


doyum 


>» 


doyim „ 


Third, 


treyum 


»> 


treyim „ 


Fourth, 


tsoryum 


»» 


taoryim „ 


Fifth, 


pdntsyum 


>» 


pdntjyim „ 


Sixth, 


sheyum 


>» 


sJieyim „ 


Seventh 


satyum 


>» 


«aftm, or satyim (fern.). 


Eighth, 


othyum 


»> 


othim, or otliyim „ 


Ninth, 


nauyum 


»> 


navim^ or nauyim „ 


Tenth, 


dahyum 


» 


ddhim^ or ddhyim „ 


In this way 


all other ordinals are regularly formed f 


the cardinals. 









3. Aggregate or Collectite Numbers. 

151. In speaking of separate numbers, slightly modified 
forms are used ; as — 



Za ak\ two ones. 
Za trdnq, two threes. 
Treh tjdk, three fours. 
J.^ ponz, one five. 
Tre^ Jpan2^ three fives. 
Ah shak, one six. 



Trek shdkq, three sixes. 
Treh dth\ three eights. 
J.A; nau or nam, one nine. 
Za dah\ two tens. 
jBTttn, a score, twenty. 



152. The word -hod (masc. sing.), -had (fern, sing), -had} 
(masc. plu.), 'hozq (fem. plu.), is added to hat, 8d$, lach, karor^ 
etc. ; as, hatqhad\ hundreds ; »dsqhqd\ thousands ; lachqhqd^, 
lakhs ; karorqhqd\ krors. 

163. Distributives are formed by repeating the number 
without any conjunction between them; as, ah ak, one by 
one ; zq zq, two by two, by twos ; Upr tsor^ by fours, etc. 

164. Proportional numbers are formed by adding -gun to 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



NUMBERS. 1C5 

the cardinals, the first four undergoing a slight change ; 
thus — 

Ogun (masc), ogqn (fern.), onefold. 

Dogun „ dogqn „ twofold. 

Tregun „ tregqn „ threefold. 

Tsogun „ t^ogqn „ fourfold. 

TanUgun „ pantsgqn „ fivefold. 

Shegun „ shegqn „ sixfold, etc. 

155. Time, or turn, is expressed by annexing -latt or -phiri 
to the cardinals when the number of times is to be indicated, 
and to the ordinals when any particular turn or time is 
meant ; as, aJci lati, or aki phiri, one time, or turn ; tsori lati, or 
tsori phiri, four times, or turns ; doyimi laii, or doyimi phiri, the 
second time, or turn, etc. 



156. 4. Fractional Numbers. 

^ = od (masc. sing.), qd (fem. sing.), qdi (masc. plu.), qji 

(fem. plu.), one-half, 
i = tsorim hissa or pau^ one quarter. 

f = dun (masc. sing.), dqn (fem. sing.), one quarter less 
(than one) — three quarters. 
Ij^ = iwdd, one and a quarter. 

1 ^ = dod (masc. sing.), dqd (fem. sing.), etc., one and a half. 
If = dun zq, a quarter less than two — one and three 

quarters. 
2j = 8wad zq, two and a quarter. 
2^ = ddi, or sddq zq^ two and a half. 
3j^ = 9adq tre, three and a half. 

75 = dun haty a quarter less than a hundred — seventy-five. 
125 = 9wdd hat, one and a quarter hundreds — a hundred 

and twenty-five. 
150 = dod hat, one and a half hundred — a hundred and fifty. 



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106 



kashmIri grammar. 



175 = dun za hat, a quarter less tlian two hundreds — a 

hundred and seventy-five. 
250 = ddi hat, two and a half hundreds — two hundred and 

fifty. 



157. 



5. Divisions of Time^ 
(1) Bays of the Week. 



English. 


KashjmirI. 


Sanskrit. 


Hindi. 


Sunday 


Atwar 


Kavivara 


Itwar 


Monday 


Tsandawar 


Somavara 


Somwar 


Tuesday 


Bomwar 


Mangalavara 


Mangal 


Wednesday 


Bodhwar 


Budbavara 


Budh 


Thursday 


Braswar 


Vrihaspativara 


Biphai 


Friday 


Jum'a, or Shukarwar 


^ukravara 


Suk 


Saturday 


Batawar 


Sanivara 


Saniohar 



158. A whole day and night of twenty-four hours is 
divided into eight parts, or watches ; the day into four parts 
beginning about sunrise, and the night into four parts 
beginning at sunset ; they call these the first or second, etc., 
watch (pahar) of the day, and the first or second, etc., 
watch (jpahar) of the night. 



159. 



(2) Months of the Year. 



English. 


Kashmiri. 


Hindi. 


April-May 

May-June 

June-July 

July-August 

August-September 


Vahek 

Zeth 

Harh 

Shrawun 

Bhadirpeth 


Vai6akh 

Jeth 

Asharh 

^ravan 

Bhadra 



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NUMBERS. 



107 



English. 


Kashm 


iRi. 


Hindi. 


September-October 


Ashid 




Asivin, or Asin 


October-November 


Karttik 




Karttik 


November- December 


Monjhor 




Agrahayan, or Aga- 
han 


Deceivher- January 


Poh 




P^ush, or Pus 


January-February 


Magli 




Magh 


February-March 


Phagun, or 


Fagun 


Phagun 


March-April 


Tsitar 




Chaitra, or Chait 



160. The Hindu year is solar, and is divided into twelve 
parts, or months, beginning with Vahek, or Vai^akh, about 
the 11th or 12th of April; but the Muhammadan year is 
lunar, and is divided into twelve lunar months, beginning 
with Muharram. As most of the inhabitants of Kashmrr are 
Muhamraadans, and they must know the Muhammadan days 
of the week and months of the year in order to keep their 
feasts and fasts, the Arabic names of the months, and the 
Hindustani and Persian names of the days of the week, 
which are often used in Kashmir, are subjoined — . 

(3) Bays of the Week. 



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< 



108 eashijib! grammar. 



(4) AraUc Lunar Months. 

1. Muharram, 30 days. 

2. Safar, 29 days. 

3. Kabl-nl-awwal, 30 days. 

4. Eabi' us-iani, or Kabf-ul-akhir, 30 days. 

5. Jumad-al-awwal, 30 days. 

6. Jumad-as-sani, or Jumad-al-akhir, 29 days. 

7. Kajab, 30 days. 

8. Sha'ban, 29 days. 

9. Eamazan, 30 days. 

10. Shawwal, 29 days. 

11. Zl, 1 Qa'da, or Zi Qa'da, 30 days. 

12. Zl, 1 Hijja, or Zi Hijja, 29 days. 

(5) Ages and Eras. 

161. The Hindus generally believe in four great periods, 
or ages, the three first of which are past, so that we are now 
living in the fourth, or last. 

1. Satyayug, comprising 1,728,000 years. 

2. Treta, „ 1,296,000 „ 

3. Dwapar, „ 864,000 „ 

4. Kaliyug, „ 432,000 „ 

162. The Kaliyug is said to have commenced b.c. 3102. 
At its close, some 427,000 years hence, after a general dete- 
rioration, there is to be a universal destruction. 

163. The era Samvat is also in common use amongst 
Hindus, and dates from B.C. 57. 

164. The era in universal use amongst Musalmans is the 
Hijra, the date of Muhammad*s flight from Mecca to Medina, 
A.D. 622. As the Muhammadan year consists of twelve 



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DERIVATIOK OF WORDS, 109 

lunationi amounting to little more than 364 days, their New 
Year's Day will consequently happen every year about eleven 
days earlier than in the preceding year.* 



CHAPTER VIII. 

DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

165. It has been stated that, taking a hundred ordinary 
Kashmiri words, they will be found to be derived from the 
following languages, in about the following proportions : — 
Deri 



rived from Sanskrit 


25 


„ „ Persian 


40 


„ „ Hindustani .. 


15 


„ „ Arabic 


10 


„ „ Tibetan, TurkI, and others 


10 



100 
These figures were most probably supplied by Muham- 
madans, who would, of course, use more Persian and less 
Sanskrit words than the Hindus. 

166. Some pundits in Kashmir, after considerable re- 
flection and consultation with their friends, gave me the 
following proportions : — 

Words derived from Sanskrit and Prakrit .. 35 
„ „ „ Urdu, Hindi, and Punjabi 20 

„ „ „ Persian ,. .. ,. 25 

„ „ » Arabic 10 

„ „ „ Ladaki, TurkI, and others 10 

100 

* There are two simple rules for finding what year A.D. (Christian) 
corresponds with any year a.h. (Muhammadan). 

RuU 1. A.H. - ^^^^ + 621-54 = A.D. 

Rule 2.' (A.H. x -97) + 62154 = A.D. This is more accurate than 
the other. 



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110 kashmiri grammar. 

1. Prefixes. 

167. Some of the most common prefixes in use in Kash- 
miri are — 

A', an-, not; as, poz, true, apoz, not true, untrue; pozior, 
truthful, apozior, untruthful ; dur, strong, adur, not 
strong, weak ; hohurmut, a married man, anhohur, a 
bachelor ; herishmats, a married woman, anhariah, a 
virgin. 

Bad-, bad, evil ; as, duqy a prayer, hadduq, a curse ; nam, a 
name, hadndm, a bad name, infamous; hdl, condition, 
6acZAdZ,*bad condition'.' 

Be-, without, not';* as, tamlz, conscience, discrimination, he- 
iamtz, without conscience or discrimiDation ; liosh, sense, 
feeling, hehosh, without sense, senseless; so hesahar, 
impatient; heaql {heqaV), without understanding. 

Ghair- (gair-), not, different, without, foreign; as, hdzir, 
present, qhairhdzir, not present, absent; mumkin, pos- 
sible, ghairmumhin, impossible ; wdjib, right, just, ghair- 
wdjib, unjust, wrong. 

Kam-, deficient, little; as, hakht, fortune, luck, kamhahht, 
unfortunate; fahm, und^standing, kamfahm, of little 
understanding. 

K6-, depreciation, disparagement ; as, harm, an action, koharm, 
a bad action ; zdt, nature, disposition, kozdt, of bad 
nature or ditjposition ; doh, a day, koddh, an unlucky 
day 5- nechu, di, child, konechu, a bad child. 

Ld-, not; as, chdra, help, Idchdr, helpless, Idchdrt, helpless- 
ness. 

Nd-, not ; as, khush (khosJi) happy, ndkhush, unhappy. 

Ne-, Iter-, nlr-, without, not ; as, nebagor, cooked without oil or 
ghee ; mal, dirt, normal, clean, clear ; deh, hope, nerdsh, 
hopeless ; ddn, riches, nerddn, poor ; dush, a fault, nir- 
dush, faultless. 



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DERIVATION OF WORDS. Ill 

Pard'y back, implies defect ; as, ddhm, humble, paradhin, de- 
pendence. 

Par-f or toopar-^ other, different, foreign, strange ; as, des, 
a country, pardes, a foreign country; loh, a world, 
parilok, the next world ; din, religion, pardin, a foreign 
religion; mahiniuy a man, parmahiniUf a stranger, wo- 
parmahiniu, also a stranger. 

2. Affixes. 
(1) Derivative Nouns, 
168. (a) Nouns of Agency and Possession, 

-dl ; as, har, a fight, haral, a fighter; lat, a kick, latal, a 
kicker ; yad, belly, yidal, a glutton. 

-6a», 'hdnq, -wan; as, fed^ (hagh), a garden, hdghdn, a gar- 
dener, or hagtodn ; khwaVy a foot, Ichwarqhdnq, a shoe; 
6a^a, food, Ichenq^ eating, hatabdnqy or khenqhdnq, a plate. 

'hand; as, n'aZ, a horse-shoe, n'alband, a farrier, or shoeing- 
smith. 

-fedis?; as, A;otor, a pigeon, hotarhdz, one who trains pigeons. 

-c^t; as, mash'al, a torch, mo^^'dZc^i, a torch-bearer. 

-ddnq; as, kalam, a pen, kalamdanq, that which contains 
pens ; /djp, sunshine, tapqddnq, that which keeps off the 
sunshine, an umbrella. 

-ddr ; as, zamln, land, zamlnddr, one who tills or owns land. 

-gar ; as, gundh, sin, gundhgdr, a sinner. 

-Ardr ; as, 6a(2, bad, hadkdr, an evil-doer. 

-Zad; as, miond, leprosy, mendilad^ a leper; Ae^ar, a skin- 
disease, hetarilad, one afflicted with hetar ; tropcw, hunger, 
starvation, wopaslad, one who is starving. 

'Sdz ; as, /dZ, a net, snare, jdlsdz, a deceiver. 

-Mr, or -^iir ; as, son, gold, «6ntlr, a goldsmith ; tsom, leather, 
tsomur, a shoemaker; jild, a cover or binding of a book, 
jildqgur, a bookbinder. 



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112 eashhTr! grammar. 

-war; as, ummed^ hope, ummedwdr^ one who hopes, a 

candidate. 
-woZ, or -wwn, added to any verb ; as, parun, to read, paranwol 

or parawun, a reader, one about to read, 

169. (h) Nouns denoting Place, 

'dhdd ; as, lildmdhad, the place or town of Islam ; Shahdhdd, 

or Shdhhdd, the place of a king. 
'hal ; as, Hazraihal, the place of Hazrat, or his Highness ; 

Tdrabal, the place of a friend, a landing-place, or ghat. 
-nagar; as, Srinagar^ the place or city of Sri (the sun); 

Bdmnagar, the city of Ram (Rama). 
-pur ; as, JSatoqpur, the place of boats ; Bamhtr Singhpur, the 

place or town of Rambir Singh. 
-w?aw> ; as, Kuliwan\ the place of trees. 
-zdr ; as, Poihizdr, the place of flowers ; Kandizdr, the place 

of thorns. 

170. (c) Abstract Nouns, 

-ar ; as, tidt, bitter, techar, bitterness; tJiod, high, thazar^ 

height ; tsot, short, tsochar^ shortness. 
-chdr; as, lokut, little, lohutchdr, littleness. 
-chi ; as, hoch, hungry, hochi, hunger. 
-er; as, modur, sweet, modrer^ sweetness; hondur, cold, 

hmdrer^ coldness. 
-gi ; as, shur^ a child, shurigi, childishness; tdza, fresh, 

tdzagl, freshness. 
-I ; as, garm, hot, garml, heat ; Team, little, karm^ deficiency. 
'il ; as shir^ a child, shuril, childishness. 

171. {d) Diminutive Nouns, 

"hun, -han, are often added to nouns to express diminution or 
endearment; as, nechuy a boy, necMuhun^ a little boy; 



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DERIVATION OF WORDS. 113 

kuTf a girl, korihan, a little girl ; lur, a staff, lorihan, a 
stick, or small staff; tsot, bread, a loaf, tsochihan, a little 
loaf. 

172. (2) Derivative Adjectives, 
'dwar ; as, zor^ strength, zordwar^ strong. 
'ddr ; as, wafa^ fidelity, wafaddr^ faithful. 

-gin ; as, gam (jgham), sorrow, gamgln, sorrowful. 

-gtr; as, dil, heart, dilgir, grieved. 

-hot; as, treah^ thirst, treshihot^thirstj ; hocM, hunger, hochihot, 

hungry. 
-mand ; as, dotdat, wealth, doulatmand, wealthy. 
-ndk ; as, haul^ terror, haulndh^ terrible. 
' waroi ; as, gdsh^ light, gashitvaroiy without light, blind ; ath, a 

hand, athqwaroiy without hands. 

(3) Derivative Verba. 

173. (a) From Adjectives. 

Bod, great ; hodun, to be great. 

Hohh, dry ; hokhunf to be dry ; hokhandwun, to make dry. 

JVati, new ; ndumny to be new. 

Niuky thin ; nyikun, to be thin. 

Siudy straight ; sidun, to be straight. 

Thod, large, tall ; thadun, to be tall. 

Tiot, bitter ; tetun, to be bitter. 

Tsok, sour ; taokun, to be sour. 

Ztu<, long ; zetur^, to be long. 

174. (fe) From Nouns. 

Dag^ a blow ; dagun, to strike. 
Dor, a course, racecourse ; dorun, to run. 
Oandy a knot ; gandun, to tie, bind. 
JJar, defeat; Adrun, to lose. 



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114 KASHMIR! GRAMMAR. 

LdVy flight ; Idrun, to flee, to run after. 

Mar, murder ; mdrun, to kill. ' 

Mandach, shame ; mandachun, to be ashamed. 

Sher, arrangement, head ; sherun, to accomplish, set in order. 

Tar, side, beink ; tdrun, to take to the side, ferry. 

Tol, a weight ; tolun, to weigh. 

Wat, a seam : xjodtan, to join. 

Tar, a friend ; ydrun, to be friendly. 

3. Compound Words. 

These are principally formed by joining together two 
nouns or a noun and an adjective. 

175. (1) Two Noum. 

Athqpanji, a glove ; from ath, a hand, and panji, the Angers. 
Dodqshur, an infant ; from dod, milk, and shur, a child. 
Ban-dach, walnut grape, a particular kind of grape ; from 

dun, a walnut, and dach, a grape. 
Gddorshikdr, Ashing ; from gdd, a Ash, and shikar, hunting. 
Ganibror, a kite (paper) ; from gant, a kite (bird), and bror, 

a cat. 
Gogajihdk, turnip-tops ; from gogaj, a turnip, and hdh, green 

vegetables. 
Huniumahuk, tares ; from Tiun, a dog, and toushuk, barley. 
Indarmohdl, the long beam by which the Kashmiris pound 

rice by standing on it at one end, and working it up and 

down ; from indar, a wheel, and mohal, a pestle. 
KanaS'dod, ear-ache ; from kan, the ear, and dod, pain. 
Kanqwoj, an ear-ring ; from kan, the ear, and %ooj, a ring. 
Kandqrwdn, a baker's shop ; from kandur, a baker, and wan, a 

shop ; wypuzwdn, a butcher's shop, and rangqrwdn, a dyer's 

shop ; from pusi, a butcher, and rangur, a dyer. 
Katqmdz, mutton ; from kat, a sheep, and mdz, flesh. 



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DERIVATION OF WORDS. 116 

Kdwa-dctch, a Hack kind of grape ; from kdwaf a orow, and 

dtieh, a grape. 
Latitdruk, a comet ; from lat, a tail, and tdruk, a star. 
Metsihdnz^ a boatman who sells earth ; from mets, earth, and 

hdnz, a boatman ; so dungaMnz, a boatman of a dunga ; 

hahatsqhdnz^ a boatman of a bahats ; demboMnz, a boatman 

who sells the vegetables that grow on the small islands 

called Demb ; zinihdnz, a boatman who sells ziun (fire> 

wood). 
MoUmof, parents; literally, "father, mother." 
Nathtoojy a nose-ring ; from ncUh^ nose, and woz^ a ring, 
Bdtqhrdl, a bat ; from rat, night, and AroZ, an insect. 
Batqmo^al, an owl ; from rat, and moghal, 
Budqwon\ rain-water; from rud, rain, and won\ water; so 

hrariwon^ well-water ; vethqwon^ river-water. 
Taunt'Tculy an apple tree ; from t»u,nt, an apple, and kul, a 

tree ; so hamUunt-hul, a quince tree, etc. 
Wmhuhwai, coarsely ground barley ; from wushuk^ barley, and 

wdt, a seam; so makaiwdty kanakwdt, coarsely ground 

Indian com and wheat. 
Wutsagagur, a flying fox ; from wuduny to fly, and gagur, a 

rat ; so usgagur, a flying squirrel. 

176. (2) An Adjective and Noun. 

Anqgagur, a musk-rat ; from on, blind, and gagur, a rat. 
Ghatjqkol, the name of a small river near Srinagar; from 

chioty white, and kol, a stream. 
Kqtqkoly a winter stream, dry in the hot weather ; from kqiq, 

false, unreal, and kol, a stream. 
Tetqvenq, a particular kind of grass ; from tidt^ bitter, and 

vien, grass. 
Tsokqladur, the name of an edible root; from taok,: ftour, and 

Icidur, a root. 



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116 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

Tsok-hamtsunt, sour-quince, the name of a particular kind 
of quince; so modur-harrttsunt, sweet-quince; tetha-tseray 
a particular kind of apricot (Twitter) ; tgokq-tsera^ ditto 
(sour) ; modur-tsunt, a particular kind of apple (sweet) ; 
tsoka-tmnt^ ditto (sour) ; modur-tsunun, a particular kind 
of peach (sweet) ; tiot-tsunun, ditto (bitter) ; taoka-tdnj, a 
particular kind of pear (sour); modar-tdnj, ditto (sweet). 
177. Muhammadans often use pure Persian or Arabic 
compounds; as, dmad-o-raft, intercourse; dida-o-ddnista^ in- 
tentionally, deliberately ; jaMn-pandhy your Majesty ; guft-o- 
slianud, or gufUo-gu^ conversation ; dh-i-kaiydt, water of life ; 
dh-o-hawd, climate, etc. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

SYNTAX. 

178. Syntax ("arranging together") treats of the arrange- 
ment of words in a sentence. Every sentence necessarily 
consists of two parts — a subject, that of which something is 
affirmed or denied ; and a predicate, that which is affirmed or 
denied of the subject. 

179. The subject must be a noun, with or without quali- 
fying, words, or the equivalent of a noun ; an infinitive verb ; 
a phrase ; or a sentence. The predicate must be a verb, with 
or without qualifying words or phrases. 

1. Order of Words in a Sentence. 

180. The general rule observed in the. arrangement of 
words in a simple sentence in Kashmiri is the same as in 
English : Ndr chhu garm, Fire is hot ; Kul chhu thody The tree 
is high ; Mahntu chhu rut. The man is good ; Mahniv aund lokut 



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SYNTAIC. 117 

neehu chhu pardn^ The man's little son is reading ; Padahdh- 
sanz hohbdur (hahddur) hshJcar ' chhe hdzivy The king's brave 
army is present ; Mahniu chhu Idydn guria, or Mahniu chhu guria 
Idydn, The man is beating the horse ; Bod mahniu chhu Idydn 
lokatia nechivis, or Bod mahiniu chhu lokatk nechivis Idydn, The 
(or, a) big man beats (or, is beating) the little son, 

181. From the above examples it will be seen that a noun 
in the genitive case nsnally precedes its governing noun, 
and an adjective the substantive that it qualifies* 

2. Substitutes for the Article. 

182. There are no words in the Kashmiri language 
exactly answering to the articles " a," " an," and " the ; " the 
word posh, flower, may mean " a flower " or " the flower." 

183. To imply indefiniteness we may use (1) the simple 
noun ; (2) the noun with the affix -d ; (3) or we may use 
ak or akd, one, or kdnh or kenh, some, before the noun ; as, 
nechu, boy, or, a boy ; mahnivd, a man, any man ; kdnh mahniu^ 
some man ; Mezas peth chhe kitdhd, There is some book on the 
table. 

184. When definiteness is required, the English definite 
article may be represented by the demonstrative pronouns ; 
as, yih mahniu, this man ; huh mahniu, that man ; hoh zandnq, 
that woman ; mh gur, that horse ; soh kitdh, that book ; 8uh 
mahniu chhu ndkdrq tq khardh. That man is worthless and bad. 

3. Nouns. 
Concord of one Substantive with another. 

185. When one substantive is placed in juxtaposition 
with another, or with a personal pronoun, for the purpose of 
explaining or describing it, then it is put by apposition in 
the same number, gender, and case ; as, MdhdrdJ sdhib, Kdshiri 



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118 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

hund hakim, chhu himdr, The Maharaja, the ruler of Kashmir, 
is ill. 

186. Titles, and most terms signifying the higher pro- 
fessions, when used with proper names, are placed before 
them ; as, Mdhdrdj Golah Singh, Bdjd Moti Singh, Qdzi Nasir- 
ud-Bm, Maulam Nizdm-ud-Dm, Munshi Nur-ud-Din, IXwdn 
Anani Bdm, Pundit Bdmjiu. 

187. The word pundit, when required, must always be used 
before any proper name having -jiu, -hat, -kol, -iiuh, -ram, -dar, 
-munish, etc., which describe the caste or family ; but if the 
proper name have no such word afi&xed to it, then the word 
pundit may be used after it ; as, Prakdsh pundit. 

188. The names of trades and all inferior occupations 
follow the name of the person ; as, Bahmdn chdn, Eahman the 
carpenter; Satdr hdnz, SatSr the boatman; Satrdm mrrdf, 
Satram the banker ; Baml Jchdr, Easul the blacksmith. 

189. In the same way, the word for " city," " village," 
" island," " sea," etc., is used after the proper name, meaning 
"city of," etc., in English; as, Amriisar shdhr, the city of 
Amritsar; Mahahom gam, the village of Makahom; Sona 
lonh, the island of Sona (gold) in the Dal Lake, near 
Srinagar. 

Case. 
(1) Nominative Case. 

190. The nominative case is used with intransitive verbs 
in all tenses, and with transitive verbs in the present, future, 
and past imperfect tenses ; as, Amritsar chhu ale hodh shahr, or 
Amritsar chhu hodh shahrd, Amritsar is a large city; DiarwoU 
chhe zulm hardn garthan (ghariban). The rich oppress the poor; 
Bo dimq, I will give; Suh os pakdny He was going; Suh os 
wuchdn. He was seeing; Tim pak\ They went; Ts a osuh 
pokmut. Thou hadst gone. 



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SYNTA3L 119 

191. When a clause or sentence forms the subject of a 
verb, it is regarded as its nominative, and the verb will be 
in the singula? number, and in the case of an infinitive with 
a noun, the verb will agree with it in gender also ; as, Kenh 
hechun prath dohq chhu zarur^ It is necessary to learn some- 
thing every day ; Kom karani chhe inadtMS kitajdn ! How good 
is it for man to work ! 

192. The verbs amity to be; sa'pawany to become; hanuriy 
to be made or become, etc., take the nominative case after 
them ; as, Suh ekhu mahmUy He is a man.; Tamia mahniv sund 
dil chhu Mpanmut han\ That man's heart has become stone ; 
Nechu hani mdhniuy The son will become a man ; Deg chhe teg 
(proverb), The pot is a sword. 

193. When the same nominative is common to two or 
more verbs, it is expressed before the fijrst only ; as, &th chku 
hhewdfiy chewdn^ tq shangan. He eats, drinks, and sleeps. If, 
however, emphasis is required, the noun or its representative 
pronoun may be expressed before each verb ; as. Sahib chhu 
hospital gatshdUj tq suhl (or sdhih) chhu himdran hinz Mismat 
Jbaran, The sahib goes to the hospital, and he (also) attends 
to the sick. 

(2) Accusative' Case, 

194. No noun has any particular form for the accusative 
in Kashmiri; it is the same as the nominative, but comes 
after the verb, as in English, whilst the nominative comes 
before the verb. A pronominal affix is also generally added 
to the verb to indicate the accusative ; as, Suh mart mahniu. 
He will beat the man ; Mahniu mdri suh^ The man will beat 
him. With the affix : Suh mdrin mahniu. He vdll beat him, 
the man ; MaAniu mdrin suh, The man will beat him (he or 
it). In this example, as both the nominative and the accu- 
sative are third person dngular, the accusative is only known 
by its position after the transitive verb. But when the 



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120 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

nominative and the accusative are not of the same person 
and number, the verb will always agree with its nominative 
and the pronominal affix with the accusative, and as the 
pronominal affixes are very generally used, there are thus 
generally two accusatives ; as, Bo mdra mdhniu, I will beat, 
or kill, the man ; but better with the pronominal affix. Bo 
mdran mdhniUj I will beat him, the man; so. Bo marak 
mahnivj I will beat them, the men. 

195. Present tense. Bo chhus mardn mahniu, I am beating 
the man; or better with the pronominal affix, Bo chhusan 
mdrdn mahniu, I am beating him, the man. 

196. Past tense. After the past tense (not imperfect) of 
a transitive verb the accusative always agrees with the verb 
in number and gender ; as, Meh mor Mput, I killed a he-bear ; 
Meh mart hdpatsa, I killed she-bears ; Our^au mor hdput, The 
horses killed a he-bear; Timau os mormtU tsur. They had 
killed a thief. 

(3) Genitive Case. 

197. The genitive affixes, -sund, -hund, -uk, -wn, and -uv, 
are all inflected and agree with the noun possessed in number 
and gender. 

198. When the same noun governs two other nouns 
joined by the conjunction tq, in the genitive case, the sign 
of the genitive is only placed after the second, though both 
nouns are inflected; as, Budien tq lolcatien hanz hhidmat gatshi 
nq karani, It is not proper to take (literally, to do) the service 
of the old and young. 

199. When a noun in the genitive case governs another 
in the genitive, then the sign of the genitive in the first 
noun is inflected ; as, tsurasandis nechiviqnz kur, the daughter 
of the son of the thief; mahnivsandis gurisqnz Idkam, the 
bridle of the horse of the man (of the man's horse) ; meziki 
takhtuk rangi the colour of the wood of the table; mezichi 



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SYNTAX. 121 

kitdhihund Jild, the cover of tlie book of the table ; Panani 
garuk hak-wdk chhul heyimndh puldwas hardhar^ The vegetable 
of thine own house is to thee equal to the pulau of another 
(person). 

200. But when two nouns come together, both in the 
genitive case, with 9und or hund, the one noun governing the 
other, the inflected sign of the genitive of the first noun U 
generally omitted, leaving the second noun with its inflected 
genitive sign ; thus, instead of tsuraaandia nechivsqnt kur, we 
have tsura nechivsqnz kur, the thief s son's daughter; so 
sdhiba naukaranhund ashabj instead of sdhihanhandien naukaran- 
hund ashdh, the things of the sahib's servants. The sign of 
the genitive is sometimes omitted; as, chhdna ktj, for 
ehhdnasqnz ktj, the carpenter's wooden peg; hunts athi aut 
mdndandtoun, to knead flour with a dog's paw (proverb). 

201. But when the governing word has -uk or -ki, the -ki 
of the preceding genitive is not omitted ; as, garki (or gharki) 
diicdruk chunq, the lime of the wall of the house ; garki diwd- 
raki chunaki phaluk rang, the colour of a piece of the lime of 
the wall of the house. 

202. If the last noun is in the dative case, being governed 
by a preposition, then the sign of the genitive of the noun 
immediately preceding it has 8 added to the -ki ; but if there 
are more genitives before this, they have the -^t only ; as, 
chunakia jphalia peth, upon a piece of lime; garki diujdraki 
chunakis phalia peth, upon a piece of the lime of the wall of 
the house ; so, sdhihasandi garki ditodraki chunakia jphalia peth, 
upon a piece of the lime of the wall of the house of the sahib. 

203. The afSx -uk is only used with inanimate objects, 
but there is no restriction as regards the objects possessed. 
Yih ahahrach adwen^ kheyi tih kheyi gdmach gdto, The lady of 
the city will eat this which the cow of the village will eat ; 
Amanuk tot, a pony of Aman (a village) ; Dohiaund hun, nq 
garuk tq nq gdthuk, The washerman's dog is not of the (does 



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122 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

not belong to) honis© nor the ghat ; Rdrqch gogdj la Ldrqch 
gunaa chhi hardhar, A turnip of (the month) Har and a gunas 
(snake) of (the district) Lar are equal. 

204. The genitive affix -un is only used with proper 
nouns, but the noun possessed may be masculine, feminine, 
or neuter; as, Mirza Bcizdhun gdda-dra, the fish necklace of 
Mirza Eaza ; Musa Khdmtn kastur, Musa Khan's blackbird ; 
Miskin Shdhv/n dstdn, the astan (ziarat^ or place of pilgrimage) 
of Miskin Shah. Myuh may also govern the genitive in -un ; 
as, Namrudun hyuh dam diwdn (proverb). He boaeta (literally, 
gives breath) like Nimrod. 

205. Though -ul and -uv may both be translated by " of," 
yet there is a diflference in their meanings : -uk means " of^" 
t.e. "in the possession of," or "for the use of;" -uv means 
" of," but " made of," and represents the English termina- 
tion " -en." " A box of gold " in English may mean a box full 
of gold, or a box made of gold, i.e. a golden box. In Kash- 
miri the first would be sonuk sanduq, a box of gold, ie. con- 
taining or for the uae of gold ; but the latter, sonuv sanduq, 
a box of gold, i.e, a box made of gold — golden. Tresh chenuk 
pdn\ drinking-water (jnne ka pdni) ; leha/nqch jdi, a place for 
sitting; khenuk wctqty time of eating. 

206. Price or value is often put in the genitive case ; as, 
ddhan rufkyan Jiund tMn, a than (piece of cloth) of ten rupees 
(value) ; trehan hatan rujfnyan himd gur, a horse of (the value 
of) three hundred rupees* 

207. In the same way, age or time of life ; as, Yih ahur 
chhu satan retan hundy This child is seven months old (This 
child is of seven months). 

208. A genitive placed between duplicated nouns has an 
intensive force ; as, Tam} niov garuh garai, He took away the 
house altogether ; ShaJkruk shahrai gau dbddy The whole city 
became peopled. 

209. The genitive is used for the object of hope, feeling, 



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SYNTAX. 123 

sentii!nent, etc. Me ckhe taaandi yinach ummed, I have hope 
of his coming ; Svh chhu Koddyi (Khudayi) sund mahabai tha- 
wan. He loves God ; Meh chhu ehon him, I fear him. 

210. Ability and worthiness may be sometimes indicated 
b}^ the genitive; as, Yih gwr cAAt* nq hum hdmihund. This 
horse is of no use. 

211. In definiticms and explanations. Chirun chhu aki 
ktsamqch god^ The gumn is a kind of fish. 

212. The genitive is sometimes governed by a noun, not 
expressed bnt understood. Mion hozy for Mion hal hoz, Hear 
my condition ; Mion^ hoz, for MUm^ khai hoz. Hear my word. 

213. When anything is represented as belonging to 
several persons, and their names occur in a series with the 
conjunction tq between the last two only, then the sign of 
the genitive is only used with the noun before and the noun 
after the tq; as, Tih garq chhu Mohan Lai, Bam Chand, 
JuMohir Lal/Hn, tq Bern Lalun, This is the house of Mohan 
Lai, Bam Chand, Jawahir Lai, and Beni LaL 

(4) Dative Case. 

214. The dative case denotes the recipient, and may 
generally be expressed in English by "to." After active 
verbs it points out that in which the object of action rests ; 
and after the verbs daun, aapanun, etc., it means '^ belonging 
to." Me diui kalam taa, I gave a pen to him; Be-haydhas 
aharm (chhu) dur. To the shameless shame is distant; Hul 
hya hari sedis f What will the bent (man) do to the straight 
(one)? 

215. The dative is very frequently used to denote " be- 
longing to/' both with nouns and pronouns, and also with 
pronominal affixes to verbs. Bataa taed, Musalmdnaa yad, tq 
Bdfizaaa hud. To the Hindu belongs endurance, to the Masai- 
man (SunI) stomach, and to the Shf a lamentation ; Chants 



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124 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

Jidkas ckhu nq pdJc dinuJc hdjat, The necessity of cooking is not 
to your vegetable (It is not necessary to cook your vegetable) ; 
hapatas at aut dsihe, If there were flour to the bear (if the 
bear had flour); Dazanas dod (proverb), Pain belongs to 
burning ; Khudd chhu thulas zu diwdn (proverb), God gives life 
to the egg ; Kya chhui ndw f What is your name ? Scis chhum 
hasti. Salih chhum ndw, I have pulse in my bag. Salih is 
my name; KdsMri kahai gara (proverb), Kashmir has only 
eleven houses. 

216. The dative is constantly used in connection with 
verbs denoting " giving," " speaking," "appearing," "coming," 
" happening," " going." Sdni dohach tsot hahhsh az asi, Give 
us this day our daily bread ; Ak mondiladan yit Jcdr tag sijda 
tq dopnas, ai Khuddwarid, tsq at yatshdk me hahak sdf karit, 
Yasu'an dopun, A leper having come, worshipped Him, and 
said to Him, Lord, if Thou wilt Thou art able to make me 
clean. Jesus said ; Dapahas ai abas gatshun, gatshi hhusMas ; 
dapahas ai Tchuahkaa gatahun, gatshi abas, If I were to tell him 
to go to the water, he will go to the dry land ; if I were to 
tell him to go to the dry land, he will go to the water; 
Manani yiyi nq panani, tq hahaddnas reh f (proverb). Its own 
flame (fire) will not come to the manan (small kangri) and to 
the hahadan (large fireplace)? i,e. The manan has no fire, 
then how can it supply fire for the hahadan? Meh chhu 
medium. It is evident to me, i.e. I know ; Tas peyi. It will 
happen to him ; Panun panun gara gatshiu, Go each one to his 
own house ; Me peov shur &imdr, My child happened to be ill. 

217. The dative is sometimes used for price or value; as, 
Me hint hatas ruplyas gur mol\ I bought a horse ft)r one hun- 
dred rupees; Me kun gara shtthan rvplyaUy 1 purchased a 
house for sixty rupees. 

218. It is frequently used for time; as, suhhas, in the 
morning ; shdmas, in the evening ; rdtas, at night ; dohas, by 
day. Suhhan, shdman, etc., are also used. Bdtas woninas 



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SYNTAX, 125 

Lail ; paga dapnas, '' Soh hya wdtihe Majnunas f " At night he 
told him (of) Lail ; on the morrow he said to him, " What 
will she be (arrive) to Majnun ? " Tam^ won jawal dit timan 
shaman ehhiva toh^ wandn zi pa>ga dsi hawa rut tikyazi dsmdn 
chhu umztd, tq subhan ehhiva wandn zi az Tcari trau, And He 
answered them, and said. In the evening ye say that to- 
morrow the air will be fine, because the sky is red, and in 
the morning ye say that to-day will be rough. 

219. The dative is often nsed where we should use the 
objective in English; as, lusamatis Idyun, to beat a tired 
(man) ; Suh chhu meh mdrdn, He is killing me ; kharas hhasit 
ta huth path hun karit, having mounted the donkey, and 
having turned' the face backward, i.e. with the face towards 
the tail ; Mion mol chhu me mahabat hardn. My father loves 
me ; Nechu mdlia minnat kardn, The son beseeches his father ; 
Da4:hhun atha chhu chhaldn khowaria^ ta khowur atha chhu chha- 
Idn dachinia (proverb), The right hand washes the left, and 
the left hand washes the right ; Suh chhu timan ndd diwdn. 
He is calling (to) them. 

220. The object of any feeling or emotion is often put in 
the dative ; as, Me chhu tasund mahahat, I love him ; Tas chhu 
mion haaad, I envy him ; Yim tohi neki kardn timan tih kariu 
toh^ neki. Do good to those who do good to you. 

221. The dative with the verb dsun, followed by the 
infinitive used as a verbal noun, is sometimes used to express 
duty, propriety, or necessity; as, Meh asi gatshun, I shall 
have to go ; Tseh chhul hechun. You must learn ; Insdnas chhu 
marun, Man must die; Nechivis chhu parun, A boy should 
read. 

222. The verbal noun in the dative (gerund) is used to 
express purpose ; as, Suh chhu kom karanas taiydr. He is ready 
to work ; Boh chhus prdrdn gatshanaa, I am expecting to go. 

223. The dative is often used for salutations and good 
wishes ; as, Tohih dsinavq saldmati, Peace (and safety) be to 



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126 KASHMIRI ORAMMAB. 

you ; Timan dsin umr-dardz, Long life be to them ; Toh^ kariu 
pdnawdn^ ah akia saldm, You amongst yourselves salute each 
other (one the other). 

(5) Case of the Agent 

224. The case of the agent is only used with transitive 
verbs in the past tenses (not the imperfect), and generally 
where ne would be used in Hindustani; the verb, or verb 
and past participle, then agree with the (what would be in 
English) objective in gender and number. 

Thus from the transitive verb mdrun, to kill or beat, we 
have the past indef. tense mor^ and the past part, mormut ; 
and these must agree with the object killed in gender and 
number ; and in the past perfect tense, where the verb dsun is 
used with the participle, both the verb and participle must 
agree in gender and number with the object killed ; and in 
the same way with the pluperfect tense. 

Examples — 

Tmran mor hdputy A thief killed a he-bear; literally, A 
he-bear (was) killed by a thief. 

Tsuran mor hdpats, A thief killed a she-bear ; literally, A 
she-bear (was) killed by a thief. 

Tsuran mdr^ hdjpat^y A thief killed he-bears ; literally, He- 
bears (were) killed by a thief. 

Tsuran mdri hdjpatsa, A thief killed she-bears ; literally. 
She-bears (were) killed by a thief. 

So with the past perfect tense— 

Tsuran chhu mormut hdput, A thief has killed a he-bear ; 
literally, A he-bear was killed by a thiief. 

Tsuran chhe mormqts hdpats, A thief has killed a she-bear ; 
literally, A she-bear was killed by a thief. 

Tsuran chhi morHncU} hdpat\ A thief has killed he-bears ; 
literally, He-bears were killed by a. thief. 



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SYNTAX. 127 

Tmra/n chhe mdrimatsa hcqpcctsa, A tbdef has killed she- boars ; 
literally. She-bears were killed by a thief. 

So with the past pluperfect— 

Tauran mdriov (or mdreyov) hdputj A thief had killed a he- 
bear; literally, A he-bear had been killed by a thief. 

Tauran mdrey hdpata, A thief had killed a she-bear ; lite- 
rally, A she-bear had been killed by a thief. 

Tauran mdrey Jidpati^ A thief had killed he-bears ; literally, 
He-bears had been killed by a thief. 

Tauran mdreyi hdpataa, A thief had killed she-bears; 
literally, She-bears had been killed by a thief. 

Tauran oa mormut hdput, A thief had killed a he-bear, etc. 

Tauran da mormata ha^ata, A thief had killed a she-bear, 
etc. 

Tauran da> mor^mati hdpat\ A thief had killed he-bears, etc. 

Tauran daq mdrimataq hdjpataq, A thief had killed she- 
bears, etc. 

225. A peculiarity to be remembered with respect to the 
X)ersonal pronouns in the agentive case is that the second 
person singular always has the pronominal affix -< added to 
the verb, and the second person plural -va ; the other personal 
pronouns may have their proper affixes added to the verb or 

, not ; they are generally added. We can say, tam} mor hdput, 
or tam^ morun hdjput; but we cannot say, tae mor hdput; it 
must be tae morut hdjput ; so tdhi chhuva mormut hdput, and not 
tdhi chhu mormut hdjput, 

226. In Hindustani the verb holnd does not take -ne with 
the agent, but with dapun and wanun the agentive case must 
be used ; as, hdp hola, the father said ; main hola hun, I have 
said ; but in Kashmiri, mdl^ dop, or mdV won ; meh chhu dopmut, 
meh chhu wonmut. 

227. The agent may sometimes come after the verb, but 
there. cannot well be any mistake made in recognizing it 



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128 KASHMIRI GRAMMAB. 

with its own inflection. Shur niov pdzan, la ahistar kheyov 
gagaran (proverb), The hawk took the child, and the rat ate 
the iron. 

228. The agentive case, however, generally precedes the 
verb ; as, Bujl lahiov hujl tal t»ant ; ada gayi phot het, An old 
(woman) had fonnd an apple nnder a tree, then she went 
(there) with a basket (having taken a basket). 

229. It should be noticed that in the first declension the 
agentive case singular and the dative plural are the same, 
but they can be easily recognized by the context ; as, Tsuran 
mor hdputf A thief killed a bear; Tsuran chhu Mput^ The 
thieves have a bear. 

(6) Locative Case. 

230. The locative case denotes situation, the place in 
which or at which something is or is done ; its form is the 
same as that of the dative, but it is accompanied by a pre- 
position expressed or understood. The most common of such 
prepositions are manz, manzhdg^ within, in the middle ; andar^ 
in ; nish^ beside, near ; petji^ upon. Shahraa manz chhu luhJ^ 
rozdrij People live in the city ; Bdgas (hdghas) manzhdg chhu 
kulf There is a tree in the middle of the garden ; Mezas peth 
chhu kalamy There is a pen on the table ; Meh nish chhu gur, 
A horse is beside me ; nakha, close to. 

231. The preposition nish with a noun is sometimes used 
to denote possession ; as, Tohi nish chhud kalam f Have you a 
pen? Temis mahnivis nish chhi gur\ This man has horses; 
Tohi nish chhud mion vmnth kinq tasund gurf Have you my 
camel or his horse ? 

(7) Ablative Case. 

232. Motion from a place, or the source from which any- 
thing proceeds, is denoted by the ablative case, which is 
generally governed by the above prepositions with -a or -a 



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SYNTAX, 129 

added to tKem; thus, mama, from within; andarq, from 
under or amongst; nishi^ from beside; petha, from upon. 
Ka4i peiha ah f Where hast thou come from ? Odma petha. 
From the village ; Bo as Dtwdn Sdhibas niaht, I came from 
the Dlwan Sahib; Tih nechu chhu yiwdn hdgq andarq, This 
lad is coming out of the garden ; Sdravoi jdnwarau andarq (or 
manzq) chhu host hod. The elephant is the largest of (from 
amongst) all animals; Dodq nishi chhe thaip nerdn. Butter 
comes fi-om milk ; Gurx nUhl chhu gatshdn paida bachi, A colt 
is bom from a mare. 

233. The preposition is not always expressed. Boh as 
shahrq, I came from the city ; Kdgaz chhu handn zacMau, Paper 
is made from rags ; Dai at diyt ta harq nydsai (proverb), If 
God will give, He will give to thee (cause thee to take) at 
the door. 

234. The manner in which, and the means or instrument 
by which, anything is done is put in this case; as, Yih 
mahniu chhu 8dri tdqatq sot^ horn kardn. This man works with 
all his might ; l^h chhu panan pdnpanam shamsherl sbt^ mdrdn. 
He is killing himself with his own sword ; Yih chhu ndrq sot^ 
handn. This is made with fire. 

(8) Vocative Case. 

235. The vocative is the case of address, or that form of 
the noun used in calling attention. It can generally be very 
easily recognized either by a preceding interjection or by its 
own termination. Hd mdli ! hd maji I (proverb), father ! 
O mother I Ai sdni mdli I our father ! Haklmas tq hdkimaa 
niahi rachhtam Khuddyo I (proverb). From the doctor and the 
ruler, God, deliver me ! Kokari handi hatak thulo, tsq kawa 
zdnak " tid (I"? (proverb), O duck*s egg of (hatched by) a 
hen, when wilt thou know the hen*s call (tid ti) ? Ai hdk, Uq 
kati dkf cabbage^^where hast thou come from ? Putra, khar 

K 



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130 kasitmirT grammar. 

tsol ! O son, the ass ran away ! Neko^ nek har tq had lahipdnaif 
(proverb), good (man), do good, and the bad (man) will 
receive his own (deserts) ! 

4. Adjectives. 

236. Every adjective, or term used adjectively, must 
qualify a subject expressed or understood. The adjective, as 
in English, generally precedes the substantive it qualifies. 
If the adjective be one that is declined, it agrees with its 
substantive in gender and number ; thus: But nechu, a good 
son ; rats hur, a good daughter ; rat^ nechiv, good sons ; ratsa 
kori, good daughters. 

237. An adjective qualifying two or move nouns agrees 
generally with the one nearest to it ; as, Mol tq kur dike rqts, 
The father and daughter are good; Kur tq mol chhu rut. The 
daughter and father are good. 

238. When an adjective qualifies a noun in the genitive 
case, the noun only takes the sign of the genitive, and the 
adjective is inflected; as, hadia mahniv sund nechu, the big 
man's son ; hadi sanduquk dasta, the handle of the big box. 

239. Hawdva and moya are used for liquids and things 
that cannot be said to have pieces, much as thora in Hindu- 
stani is used, only these always come after the noun, whilst 
thora as an ordinary adjective precedes and agrees with its 
substantive in gender and number. Strictly speaking, 
hawdva is a noun, from hawd, air, and means " a whiflf or puflf 
of air," and so dhq hawdva would be dhq sund hawdva, a whiff 
of water, a little water. 

In the same way, hana means literally " a piece of," and 
is thus applied to substances that can be divided into pieces, 
much like chhotd in Hindustani, only, like hawdva and moya, 
always following an inflected substantive. Monai is used 
with hana moya and hawdva ; as, wowat doda hana, a very little 
milk ; monai aba moya, a very little water^ 



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SYNTAX, 131 

240. Kenh and kmtsa are used with adjectives; as, Tih 
kenh modur Mu nq, This is not at all sweet ; Yih tsunt chhu 
kentsa tsok, This apple is a little sour. 

Comparison of Adjectives. 

241. As has already been noticed, there are no regular 
suffixes or inflections to mark the degrees of comparison of 
adjectives. It will be sufficient here to give some examples 
of the way in which this difficulty is met in Kashmiri. Mion 
garq chhu tdhandi Mota thod (or tsor thod), My house is higher 
than his ; Boh chhus tdhandi Mota mihrhdn (or tsor mihrhdn), I 
am kinder than he is ; Suh sanduq chhu yemi sanduqa khoia tsor 
hod. That box is much larger than this box; Kus chhu 
madrasas manz sitha lokut nechu ? Which is the smallest boy 
in the school ? (Who is the very small boy in the school ?) ; 
Midnis tahelas manz Mu yih gur sitha hod, This horse is the 
biggest in my stable (In my stable this horse is very big) ; 
Sdrivai mdj^au manzq os soi sitha mihrhdn. She was the very 
kindest of all mothers ; Suh chhu sdrivai nechiv^au manzq rut. 
He is the best of boys ; Suh nechu chhu panani h'eni hindi 
khota kam gdtul, That boy is less clever than his sister. 

5. Pronouns. 
(1) Personal Pronouns, 

242. There is no word of respect] in Kashmiri like dp in 
Hindustani. When gentlemen converse together they always 
use the pronoun in the second person plural in addressing 
each other, as in English and Persian ; when they speak to 
inferiors they often use the second person singular. 

243. Persons of rank, in speaking of themselves, use the 
first person plural, and not the first person singular. This is 
much like the custom that prevails in India amongst tho3e 
who speak Hindustani. 



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132 kashmIri grammar* 

244. The third person singular is always used in speak- 
ing of a person in his absence, no matter what his dignity 
may be. The plural is. often used in Hindustani. Aj Diwdn 
Sahib chku yiwdn, tq hom hart shahras andar, To-day the Dl wan 
Sahib is coming, and he will work in the city ; Kaa sipdhaa 
chhu ^pddshdh ndd dkodn f What soldier is the king calling ? 

245. The accusative of hoh is meh ; and tseh is sometimes 
used as the accusative of tm. For " He is beating me," we 
can say, Suh chhu meh mdrdn^ or Suh Mum mdrdn, or Suh 
chhum mdrdn meh ; but we cannot say, Suh chhu mdrdn boh^ 
nor Suh chhum mdrdn hoh. For " He is beating thee," I find 
some pundits say, Suh chkusat mdrdn tsq ; but others say, Suh 
chhusai mdrdn tseh, 

246. When a personal pronoun is accompanied by a quali- 
fying noun in apposition, the sign of the genitive is used 
only after the noun, but the pronoun is in an oblique case ; 
as, meh faqiri 8und garq, the house of me, the faqir ; so tseh 
faqtri sund garq; tas faqiri sund garq, etc. 

247. Tih and mh are often used as demonstrative pro- 
nouns ; as, yih gur^ this horse ; suh shur, that child« 

(2) Beflexive and Possessive Pronouns^ 

248. Pdnq, self, is used with nouns or pronouns; as. 
Pundit chhu pdna yih kom Jcardn, The pundit himself is doing 
this work ; Bo gos pdnq, I myself went. 

249. Pdn, body, self, and panun pdn, own self, are also 
used for *♦ self," and sometimes without a preceding noun or 
pronoun ; as, LuJca hund katit nethanun pdn ; Luka handi 
rachhit .neputra pdn (proverb). Himself naked, having spun 
(the wool) of (other) people ; himself childless, having taken 
care of (the children) of (other) people ; Yih na hdnas Idri 
tih Idrid pdnas ? (proverb), This will not stick to the pot, and 
will it stick to one's self? Jdn kus chhu? Panun pan (proverb). 
Who is good? My own self; Khewdn pdnas tq thkkdn jajidnas^ 
He eats to himself and boasts to the world* 

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syNTAX. 133 

250. Pdnai is the intensive form ofpdnq ; it is sometimes 
used in the sense of ** alone ; " as, Bo goa pdnqy I myself went ; 
J5d go8 pdnai, I alone went ; Natsdn tih pdnai tq wdydn tih pdnai 
(proverh), He himeelf alone dances, and he himself also 
plays ; Panun muhim chhu Mwdn pdnai wat^ One's own difficulty 
points out the way its own self. 

251. Pdnawdni is used for " amongst ourselves, yourselves, 
or themselves ; " as, Yih horn pdnawdn> kariu^ Do this work 
amongst yourselves ; Tikydzi wati paJcdn os^ timpdnawdn^ hahas 
kardn zi asi andar kus chku hod, For walking by the way they 
were disputing amongst themselves who is the greatest 
amongst us (literally, that who is great among us). 

252. Panun, own, always refers in Kashmiri to the nomi- 
native or agent of the sentence ; as, Mol chhu pananis nechivis 
parandwdn, The father teaches his son ; Moj chhe panani kori 
parandwdn, The mother teaches (literally, causes to read) her 
daughter ; Yih chhe me panani kitdh, This is my own book ; 
Toh^ chhiva pananis noAikaraa ndd diwdnf Are you calling 
your servant ? 

253. Panun is sometimes repeated to denote separation ; 
as, Tim sari luk chhi panun panun garq gatshdn, All those 
people are going to their own (separate) houses (literally, 
house). If we . simply said, Tim sdri luk chhi panun garq 
gatshdn, it would mean, " All those people are going to their 
own (one) house." 

254. Panun is often used substantively, meaning " one's 
own relations, friends, or people ; " as, Suh chhu gatshdn pana- 
n^en nish. He is going to his own — people or friends ; Panun 
ai mdri shihalis trdwi,parud ai mdri tq mdritoi gatshi (proverb), 
If one's own (relation, etc.) should kill (me, etc.), he will 
place in the shade (the grave) ; but if a stranger should kill 
(me), immediately after killing he will go away ; Panan^au 
chhu nq paighamhar monmut (proverb), His own (people) have 
•not obeyed (their) prophet. 



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134 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

255. The possessive pronouns agree with their sn'bstan-' 
fives in number, gender, and case. Chon munga trah son sun 
nh (proverb), Thy trak (about twelve pounds) of mung (is) his 
4me meal ; Chdnis dahdnas guldb (proverb), Eose-water (or, a 
rose) to his mouth; Suh mahniu chhad tihund dostf Is that 
man their friend ? Yih chhua tuhund vmnth ? Nq, yih chhu nq 
son, Is this your camel? No, this is not ours; Yih chhed 
tasanzkur? Soh chhe tasanz kur, Is this his daughter? She 
is his daughter ; Yih chhe nq tihanz kitdh, This is not their 
book. 

(3) Demonstrative Pronouns, 

256. Demonstrative pronouns agree with their substan- 
tives in number, gender, and case. Yih hun chhu khewdn^ 
This dog is eating; Hoh zandnq chhe gatshdn, That woman 
is going away ; Yiman mahniv^en hund gur tsol, These men's 
horse ran away ; Yath gdmas nq gatshun dsi tami gdmuk ndwoi 
h'eun kya chhuf (proverb), Why inquire the name of that 
village to which (you) have not to go? (literally, To the 
village there may not be to go, of that village why take the 
name?). 

257. The substantive is often omitted. Yih chhu hich yut 
rachhihan tut diyi toph (proverb), this is a scorpion, as many 
as nourish it, so many it will sting ; Meh nish nq chhu yih tq 
nq suh, I have neither this nor that ; Suh kus chhu ? Suh chhu 
mion dost, Who is that' He is my friend; Gur zandnq, 
f<ha7nsher, yim trenawai chhi he-wafd, A horse, a woman, a 
sword, these three are unfaithful. 

(4) Relative Pronouns, 

258. The relative pronouns yus (masc), yosq (fem.), and 
yih (neut.) answer to the English relatives *'who," "which," 
or " what ; " and they are followed by suh, soh, and tih, as 
correlatives. When the relative, is accompanied by a sub- 



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SYNTAX. 135 

stantive, it agrees with the substantive in number, gender, 
and case ; but, unlike the order observed in English sen- 
tences, the relative in Kashmiri is usually found at the 
beginning of a sentence. Ym gatshi suh wdti, (He) who will 
go, he will arrive ; Yosa hur panani mdji mdni soh hani jdn 
mdj\ The daughter who obeys (or, will obey) her own mother, 
she will become a good mother ; Yih mol chhu Jcardn, tih chhu 
nechu hechhdnj What the father does, that the son learns; 
Tusoi kheyi ser ml gatshi ser (proverb). He who shall eat a 
ser (seer, two pounds), he will be satisfied ; Yua yas zdni mi tas 
mdni (proverb). Whom he knows, him he will obey (literally. 
Who whom he may know, he him will obey) ; Yiman gahar, 
timan nq hata; yiman hata, Uman nq gahar (proverb). Those 
who have children, they have no food ; those who have food, 
they have no children; Yih Ueh chhut wandas tih chhu meh 
chandas (proverb). That which thou hast in the heart, that 
I have in the pocket; Yimavoi mor imam, timavoi Mr sama 
(proverb), Those very persons who killed the imSm, they 
made the lamentation ; Yih mallq wani tih gatshi harun ; yih 
mallq kari tih gatshi na harun. That which the mull a may 
say, that (we) ought to do ; that which the muUa may do, 
that (we) ought not to do. 

269. Though the relative agi'ees with its substantive, 
expressed or understood, in number, gender, and case, yet 
the relative and correlative may be of different cases, though 
always of the same number and gender. Yem^ kor ^dr mh 
gdw kkwdr, He who did a meanness, he became mean ; Yusoi 
rochhum tasi nish raehhtam Khuddyo (proverb), He who was 
taken care of by me, God, take care of me from him ; Yem^ 
wuchh naris tq dalis suh gdw hhwdr (proverb), He who looked 
to the sleeve and border, he became mean. 

260. Akdj Jcanhj and kantsa may be joined to yus and yosq, 
which then denote " whoever ; " kenh can be used with yih, 
which will then denote " whatever.** The correlatives re^ 



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136 KASHMIRI GJIAMMAR. 

ceive no additions. Yus oka guHah Mu kardn guh chhu panuu 
nuqsdn tadnddn, Whoever sins seeks his own injury ; Tahanzi 
mdji dop naukaran yih kenh 8uh waniva tih kariu, His mother 
said to the servants, Whatever He says to yon, that do. 

261. The intensive forms are yvsoi^ yil, sul, etc. Nundn 
dopus, «* Yuaoi gol m% gol" The salt said to it, " That which 
melted, that melted ; " Won} gdw sul yus pdnis hozi hisah (pro- 
verb), He indeed is a shopkeeper who will understand the 
account of water; Tusoi rochhum yiman athan, sui yiwdn 
netharan kathan (proverb), He whom I cherished with these 
hands, even he is coming with words about marriage, 

(5) InterrogiUive Pronouns. 

262. The interrogative kua, who, is inflected, and agrees 
with its substantive, expressed or understood, in number, 
gender, and case. Huh mahnuv km chhu f Who is that man ? 
Soh zandnq kosa chhehf Who is that woman? Yih nechu 
kohund chhu ? Whose child is this ? Kahand^ nechiv mori pdd- 
shdhanf Whose children did the king slay? KamHtk hdjat 
chhuif What have you need of? 

263. Kanh for masculine and feminine, and kenh for 
neuter nouns are used as interrogatives with the interroga- 
tive form of the verb. Kanh chhud garas andarf Is there 
any one in the house ? Yath sanduqas andar kenh chhud f Is 
there anything in this box ? 

(6) Other Pronouns. 

264. Kanh, any masculine and feminine singular, and 
kenh, some, are thus used : Meh chhe nq kanh kitdh, I have not 
any book (I have no book) ; Meh chhe nq kenh kitdba, 1 have 
not any books (I have no books) ; Timan os nq kanh chtz, They 
had not anything; Timan os nq kenh, They had nothing; 
Khuddwand chfiu nq panani w'ada hdpat susti kardn yitihpoth 



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SYNTAX. 137 

Icenh chM suati ganzardn halki suh Mu tuhqndi hhotira sahar 
kardn zi konsi hqnz haldkat chhu nq yatshdn, The Lord is nat 
slack concerning His promise, as some (men) count slackness; 
but is long-suffering to you-ward, not willing that any should 
perish ; Tq yeli loh^ du'd mangana khdtira chhiva istdda sapandn 
tohi at Jconsi peth kenh shikdyata dsiva tas kariu m'udf^ And 
when ye are standing to pray, if ye have some complaint 
against any one, forgive him ; Kank oka chhu nq farzandas 
zdndn magar mol, No one knoweth the Son, but the Father ; 
Kanh naukar chhu nq don dghan hqnz khidnuU karit hekdn^ No 
servant is able to serve two masters ; Muhtdjan di kenh. Give 
something to the poor; Tami waqta os^ kenh zani hdzir, At 
that time some persons were present ; Tau pata w6n tahand^au 
kentsau tsdtau pdnawon^ yih kya chhuh f Then some of His 
disciples said amongst themselves, What is this ? 

265. Beydkj another ; kustdm, some one. Tikydzi (zgar auh 
yu8 yiiodn chhu heyis Tasu^a sanz manddi karihe yemi sanz nq 
aaih kqr, yd heydk ruh labihiu yus nq tohi Ubwa, yd heydk injil 
yosa nq mejmats onva tq tihund harddaht karun os jdn. For if 
he that oometh preacheth another Jesus^ whom we did not 
preach, or if ye receive a different spirit, which ye did not 
receive, or a different gospel, which ye did not accept, to bear 
with him was well ; Lekin Yam' an dopus kamitdm log meh 
athq. But Jesus said. Some one touched me ; Fakhara soti ma 
kariu kanh kom lekin haUm dilisot^ zdnion ak heydk panani khota 
hehtar, Do nothing with boasting, but with lowliness of mind, 
let each esteem the other better than himself. 

266. Har^ each, every, is Persian, and is sometimes used 
by those who know that language for the Kashmiri word 
prat, which has the same meaning. They are both joined to 
kanh, kenh, aka, etc. ; as, Har rang-i^mustbat chhu ak diwdnagl 
(proverb), Every kind of misfortune is a madness ; Prat kanh 
yus muhahat chhu thawdn 8uh chhu Khuddyas nishipaida sapunmut. 
Every one who loveth is begotten of God; Prat kanh rats 



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138 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

hdkhshish tq prat kanh Jcdmil in' dm chhu az hdld, Eveiy single 
good gift, and every single perfect gift, is from above ; Prat 
kanh kul chhu panani mewa soti parzandwana yiwdn. Every 
single tree is known by its fruit ; Pas prat aka diyi Khuddyas 
panun panun hisdh, Therefore every one shall give his own 
account to God. 

267. Most of the compound pronouns are formed by 
adding kanh, kenh, aka, and tdm to the personal relative and 
interrogative pronouns ; as, Pas at ddmi yus aka dsi, There- 
fore, man, whosoever he may be ; Teli nq toh^ hegdna sandis 
mdlas andar rudiva diydnatddr kus aka diyiva tohi tih yih tahund 
dsi ? When ye have not been faithful in another's property, 
who will give you that which is yours ? Yih kenh toM mion 
ndw het mdlis niah mqngiu suh diyiva tohi. Whatever ye shall 
ask the Father in My Name, He will give it you. 

268. Ak akis sot^, one with another, or one another; 
Thaviu ak akis sot^ mahahbat. Love one another. Ak akis peth, 
one upon another, one another ; Ak akis peth ma kariu grdva. 
Murmur not one against another. Ak aksund, one of another; 
Sorai ^azuv rozan pdnawon^ ak ak sandi hamdard. Let all the 
members remain amongst themselves in sympathy one with 
another. 

6. Verbs : Use and Application of the Tenses. 
(1) Active Voice. 

269. As has been already remarked, the verbs in Kashmiri 
are generally very regular. 

(a) Indicative Mood, 

270. Present tense. There is only the present continuous 
tense of verbs in Kashmli i (except the verb dsun) formed by 
the active or present participle with the auxiliary verb *' to 
be." We can say, ho chhus, 1 am ; su chhu, he is ; but the only 



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SYNTAX. 130 

way of saying " I do," " he does," is ho chhua hard% I am 
doing ; su ckhu kardn, he is doing. The auxiliary agrees 
with its nominative in number and gender, the participle is 
not inflected ; the auxiliary also takes the pronominal affixes, 
not the participle. Saruf chhu pakan Ml hoi ta wdj tal wdtit 
syud (proverb), The snake goes crookedly (crooked crooked), 
and having reached its hole (it is then) straight ; Shin deshit 
yih gagur hart tih chhuk ruplyi deshit kardn (proverb). What 
the rat, having seen the snow, will do, that thou art doing 
having seen rupis ; Bo chhusava tohi dk nav hukm diwdn zi ak 
akis 800 kariu muhabhat, A new commandment I give unto 
3 ou. That ye love one another. 

271. The auxiliary verb is sometimes not expressed, but 
is always understood ; thus : Sarrdf ganzardn diydr, tq airdf 
rdwardn doh (proverb), The banker counts the money, and the 
spendthrift wastes the day ; Sarafa sqnzq sat z'ewa (proverb), 
A snake's seven tongues ; Our jdn, sum jdn, ydljdn, chdl jdn^ 
kadam nai (proverb). The horse (is) good, hoof good, mane 
good, appearance good, but (there is) no step ; Hun^ wordn tq 
kdrawdnq pakdn (proverb). The dogs bark, and the caravan 
goes on ; Huni-umshkq yur nq wawdn tur howdn (proverb). Dog- 
barley (tares) where (we) do not sow there they grow. 

272. It must be observed that chhus may mean **I am," 
or chhu tas^ to him, he has ; so chhui may be the intensive 
form of chhu^ or it may mean chhu tse, to thee, thou hast. 
The right meaning will be easily gathered from the context ; 
thus : Bo chhus kom kardn, I am working ; Ak wondn wagavi 
heydk ptlandwdn chhus pets (proverb). One weaves the mat, 
and another holds out to him the reed ; Khoja chhu khushi 
kardn ki nechu chhum gdtul ; nechu chhus pdma diwdn ki moloi 
chhum he-aql (proverb). The khoja rejoices that he has a wise 
son (to me is a wise son), the son gives him reproach because 
he (the son) has a foolish father (that the father indeed to 
me is without understanding) ; Ts e chhui nq gur, Thou hast 



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140 KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

not a horse ; Ghhdna (hiikas chhm ras taiydr (proverb), To tta 
hammering of the carpenter the soup is ready ; CKhdnaa tq 
hdzigaras tq shahsawdras chhui audtit umr (proverb), To the 
carpenter, and the tumbler, and the horse-breaker there is 
indeed only half a life, or. The carpenter, etc., have only 
half a life. 

273. The ordinary way of expressing " I have," " he has," 
•* they have,'* etc., in Kashmiri is by putting what is the 
nominative case in English in the dative case, and making 
the verb agree with the noun possessed in number and 
gender; thus : "I have a book," is, in Kashmiii, " To me is 
a book," Me chhe kitdh. Tas chh'e kenh kitdha, He has some 
books; Timcm chhi nq gur\ They have no horses ; Tdhi ckhuva 
ak had ahakl wunth f Have you an ugly camel ? Timan chhu 
hdputj They have a bear; Munan^en hun^en shaposh ia me nq 
kalapoih tih (proverb), Muna's dogs have a quilt, but I have 
not even a skull-cap. In the same way we speak of the past 
and future : Me oa gur, I had a horse ; Taa dsi kalam, He will 
have a pen. 

274. We can also say, Brdri niBh chhu gagur for " The cat 
has a rat ; " Son gur os na timan nish f Had they not our 
horse ? Tdhi niah chhud kalam f Have you a pen? Mion wunth 
chhud akis mahnivis nish f Has a man my camel ? 

275. The indefinite past tense of gatahun is often used for 
the present tense, meaning " it became," and so " is." Baaa 
rust hata gdw thasa rust chhdn (proverb), Eice without soup is 
a carpenter without noise ; Ak tq ak gdw kah (proverb). One 
and one make eleven ; Waqtuk kdr gdw takhtuk pddshdh (pro- 
verb). The work of the time is the king of the throne ; Shur 
gdw hror ; " TTwZa, wula,'* karus tq yiyi (proverb), A little child 
is a cat ; repeat, " Come, come," and it will come. 

276. Two nouns joined by the copulative conjunction tq 
frequently take the verb in the singular ; as, Mol tq moj chhe 
gar as andar^ The father and mother are (is) in the house; 



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SYNTAX. 141 

Aw iq gaw (pTJdw) chhus hardhar (proverb), Come and gone 
(i,€, finding and losing) are (is) alike to him ; Bukhari gayi 
ndsUr'i'kkana (proverb), The fireplace is the ulcer of the 
house ; Kur gayi lori rust piydda (proverb), A daughter is a 
runner without a stick. 

277. Future tense. The future tense is sometimes used 
for the present. Yus yuth kari suh tyuth suri; yus yuth wavi 
suh tyuth loni (proverb). As he does, so he receives ; as he sows, 
so he reaps ; Yus yas zdni sui tas mdni (proverb). He obeys 
him whom he knows; Kdr-i-Khudd zdni Khudd (proverb), 
God knows the work of God ; Yus aJcd kheyi tq cheyi to, kansi 
diyiy suh chhu jdn tasandi khota yus ani tq jama* kari (proverb), 
Any one who eats and drinks and gives to another is good 
compared with him who brings and hoards ; Pish kari gundh 
ioagavis chob, vmchhtau lukau tamdsha! (proverb), The flea 
sins, the mat is beaten ; behold, people, the sight ! 

278. The intensive future is formed by adding i to the 
simple future. Zdnai nq qaum^ nq krdm, nq ndm (proverb), 
I certainly will not know your nation, or class, or name. 

279. Future interrogative, Gur dapid ki mion dod chhu 
tsok f (proverb). Will the milkman say that my milk is sour ? 
Yus nq gaha phati suh dapid ♦' Baha " f (proverb). He who is 
not bom (to me), will he say, "Father"? Pdni rust ddni 
khoMd zi ndni rust shur khasi ? (proverb), Will rice rise up 
without water, that the child should grow up without a 
grandmother ? 

(For the future used as subjunctive, see Subjunctive 
Mood.) 

280. Past tenses. It is only necessary to remark on those 
past tenses formed by means of a participle and the auxiliary 
verb '< to be," as the imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect (second 
form), that, when a pronominal affix is added, it is always 
joined to the auxiliary verb, not to the participle ; and that 
the active^ participle undergoes no change for numberi 



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142 KA.SHMIRI GRAMMAR. 

gender, or person, whilst the perfect participle always agreed 
in number and gender with its noun, which in the case of an 
intransitive verb is the nominative, and in the case of a 
transitive verb what would in English be the objective. 
Suh 08 me Idydn, He was beating me ; Tim osi me Idydn, They 
were beating me ; Me chhimava toh^ dunyaha nisM Udrit juda 
karimat^y I, having chosen you, have separated you from the 
world. 

281. The past indefinite of intransitive verbs always agrees 
with its nominative in number, gender, and person. There 
are two forms of conjugation which diflfer slightly from each 
other. Some verbs of this tense are conjugated like poktLS and 
eapaniis, and others like doryoa and goa. In the case of the 
second kind the pluperfect is only a lengthened form, as 
doreyoSy doreyov^ etc. ; but in the first kind the consonant pre- 
ceding the personal terminations often undergoes a change, 
as poktis, 'poky pachos, pachiov, or pachios (pachyos), pachyov, 
pacTieyov. The longer form appears to throw the time further 
back than the shorter: Doryoa, I ran, doreyos, I had run; 
packoSy I had gone, pacheyoa, I had gone before that. Phul 
phot tq dd'wd kya f (proverb), The line (or, connection) broke, 
then what (is) the complaint? Kati, hdi, dkf Whence, 
brother, camest thou ? Sirini as, I came from Sirin. 

282. The past indefinite and pluperfect (first form) of tran- 
sitive verbs always agree with (what would be in English) 
their objectives in number and gender. Hash gayi tq noshi 
kor drdm (proverb). The nlOther-in-law went (died), and the 
daughter-in-law had (made) peace ; Yemi kor dr su gdw khwdr 
(proverb). He who did the sham6, he became shameful; 
Pir^au maryov ddnd meh kya rdvyov zi boh wanihe kdmi f (pro- 
verb), The pirs had killed an ox : what had I lost that I 
should tell any one? Bujl laUov kwfi tal taunt; ada gayi phot 
het (proverb). An old (woman) had found an apple under a 
tree, afterwards she went (there) having taken a basket; 



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SYNTAX. 143 

Lekin yih aapun yuth suh Jcaldm yus tihandia sharVaias andar 
likhit chhu zi timau kar meh sot^ be-sahah dushmani pur sapani. 
But this came to pass that the word which in their Law 
is written, that they hated Me without a cause, might ba^ 
fulfilled. 

(For the use of the pluperfect as a subjunctive, see Sub- 
junctive Mood.) 

(V) Imperative Mood. 

283. There is nothing requiring particular mention in 
the use of the simple imperative; but special attention 
should be paid to (1) the use of the respectful imperative ; 
(2) the use of the pronominal affixes with the imperative ; 
and (3) the termination -zi added to the imperative, which 
gives it a future signification. Meh ti ditam yendma. Be 
pleased to give me also a reward ; Wuchhtau kyq pyau humas 
wdvf rdnUm koruk Shdh Mdl ndw (proverb). Behold, what 
misfortune has happened to beauty ! they gave to the ugly 
woman the name Shah Mai; Sklna petaul Bdyi yitau! 
(proverb). Fall, snow ! Come, brother ! Tq tam^ won tas 
yih zi Khuddwand yus chon Khudd chhu panani sari dili sot^ tq 
panani sdri *aqli sot^ kar tas muhabbat , , . tq panania hamaayas 
kar yuthai muhabbat yuth pdnas chhuk kardn. And He said to 
him this, that the Lord who is thy God, love thou with all 
thy heajrt, and with all thy mind . . . and l9ve thy neigh- 
bour as thou dost love thyself; Haktmas tq hdkimaa nishi 
rachhtam Khuddyo ! (proverb), O God, deliver me from the 
doctor and the ruler ! " Plra^ wantam masald I " dopnas, " akl 
gmn tasalld " (proverb), " pir, tell me an example ! " he said 
to him ; " one was enough for me ; " Foshdkan chhu wonmuty 
" Tdh kartam ahdh karat " (proverb). The garment has said, 
" Fold me up (take care of me), and I will make thee a king; " 
Khudd ma karin ! God forbid I (May God not do it I) ; Yeli 
m yiyi me karzi khabar^ When ho comes, tell me (When he will 



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144 kashmIrI grammar. 

come, give me word) ; Kur dizi nq Ishtbari (proverb), Give 
not a daughter to an Ishibari ; Yih haktmaa dizi iih hona dizi 
hlmdrasf (proverb). That which thou wilt give to the doctor, 
whj not give to the sick ? 

(For the use of tbe verb with the termination -zi as a 
subjunctive, see Subjunctive Mood.) 

(c) Subjunctive Mood, 

284. The present tense of the subjunctive mood is the 
same as the future ; thus : Bo chhus dmut yuth tim zindcigi lahan 
tq zydda hasil Icaran, I am come that they may have life, and 
that they may obtain more (life) ; T6U chhiva nq yatshdn zi 
me nish yiyiu yuth zindagl labiu, You do not desire to come to 
Me that you may have life ; N&ddn ai zdni zi ndddn chhuSj ada 
chhu nq ndddn (proverb). The ignorant man, if he knows that 
he is ignorant, then he is not ignorant ; Panan^ hokqr nai bad 
dsi tq luJca hundi gari Icydzi trdwi thul? (proverb). Your own 
hen, if she were not bad, then why does she lay eggs in the 
house of other people ? Khor ai dai hilhul sdf toti dsanas hat 
phephara (proverb). If a person with a bad head (suffering 
from impetigo capitis) be perfectly clean, yet there will be 
a hundred pimples left. 

285. The verb with the termination -zi is used sometimes 
with at, if, as a subjunctive ; as, Da^hh ai hhezi tq dpaimdn ; 
kachh ai Jchezi tq zyur (proverb), If thou shouldst eat grapes, 
then §paiman ; if thou shouldst eat grass, then zyur ; Jfan- 
gawun ai thavizin tanga-wan^ andar tati tih kari mangamang 
(proverb), If thou shouldst place a beggar in a pear-grove, 
even there he will beg; Hdri ai wunth kunun d$i tq hdr nai 
dsi tq harizis hya f (proverb). If a camel should be sold for 
a cowrie, and thou hast not a cowrie, then what canst thou 
do ? Pitur ai dizin kala kin ddnas zangau sot^ phutardioi rupeyi 
hdna (proverb),''If thou shouldst thrust an uncle head fore*^ 



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STNTAX. 145 

most into the fireplace, with his legs he will break a rupee's 
worth of cooking-pots ; Pitur at dizin pen^ tati tih taati yern 
(proverb), If thon shotQdst give an uncle the pen^ (cleaning- 
brush), then also he will cut the yen^ (warp). 

286. The past indefinite is used to' express a wish or a 
condition; as, Kdshhe 9uh dsihe hdsdrf WoiQd that he were 
present I Gara, wandai gara sasd ! gara^ n^raha nazal (proverb), 

house (home), I offer thee a thousand houses ! home, would 

1 might never leave thee I Kashke toU karthiu saUanat tq qa 
tih karahau tdhi sot^ saltanat ! WoiQd that ye did reign, that 
we also might reign with you I 8u ai panatU gari dsihe tq 
tahanz moj dsihe setha khush, K he had been at home, then his 
mother would have been very pleased ; Meh ai handuq dsihe 
tq bo Idyaha zarur tas, If I had had a gun, I certainly should 
have shot him ; Tim ai htmdr dsahan tq tahanz heni dsihe setha 
ghamgtn. If they were (or, had been) ill, then their sister 
would be very sorry; Hdpatas ai aut dsihe tq su harihe nq 
tsochif (proverb), If a bear had flour, woiQd he not make 
bread ? Yih shaif^ nai Khuddya sandi tarafa dsihe kenh hekihe 
nq Icarit, This Man, if He were not ^om God, coiQd do 
nothing ; Tq tqm^ Farlsiyan, yem^ tas sdl os kormuty yih umehhit 
wonun dilas andar^ zi yih ai ndbi dsihe tq zdnihe zi yih zandna^ 
yosa amis ehhe atha Idgdn, hosa ehhe tq hitsh ehhe^ Uhydzi gu- 
nahgdr ehhe^ And that Pharisee who had given the invitation, 
having seen this, said in his heart, that if this (Person) were 
a prophet, then He woiQd know that this woman who 
touches Him who she is, and what kind (of woman) she is, 
for she is a sinner ; Ai Khuddwand^ tsq ai yaU dsahak mion hoi 
marihe na, O Lord, if Thou hadst been here, my broths had 
not died. 

287. Pluperfect Bo nai dsaha dmut tq timan dapaha nq 
tihund gundh dsihe nq, leJcin won^ chhu nq timan nish tihandi 
gunahuh *uzar, If I had not come and spoken to them, they 
had not had sin, but now they have no excuse for their sin. 

h. 



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146 KASHHiRl GBAMMAB. 



(d) Participles, 

288. The uidefinite active participle in -dn correepondB 
to the active participle in English ending in "-ing;** as, 
karq/a^ doing ; pokdn^ going ; and is used with the auxiliary 
verb in the same way as the participle in English. Bo 
ekhw kardnf 1 am doing; B6 daa haran, I shall be dcnng; 
Bo qau$ ftar«ti, I was doing, eta PdnM niM ckhu pdnsa 
phaidn (proverb), A pais& is bursting from a pais&. 

289. The active participle is also used as a continuative 
and statistical verb ; as, Pardn^ paran par gdi khdli (proverb). 
Beading, reading (by constant reading), ihe feathers have 
becomie empty ; Magar Peirua rod ^as thas hardn. But Peter 
remained knocking; 8u neehu chhu yiwdn giwdn giwdny That 
boy comes singing. 

290. The perfect or past participle is inflected to agree 
with its noQn in number and gender; with intransitive 
verbs the noun with which the perfect participle agrees is 
the nominative, and with transitive verbs the (what would 
be in English) objective. Tikydzi tuhqndi tsd^ o^ shahreu 
andar gdmcUi, For His disciples were gone into the city; 
WuMu gar ehhe yiwdn haUd dmats chhe zi tok^ saponin parar 
ganda prat akah pdnan^en riMk^ Behold, the Jionr cometh, yea, 
is come, that ye shall be scattered every man to his own; 
Ai MdU gar chhe wdtsmats. Father, the hour is come ; Tohi 
chhiva rdsibdzas pe$h hukm kormut qatl chhus kormut ta su chhuva 
nq muqdhala karda^ You have condemned the righteous ^man), 
you have killed him, and he doth not recast yoU; ^ tdhi 
sdranai huiid os mushtdq tq yemi khotira zi idhi osha tuhanzi 
hlmdfi h/^ hdl Immwt ghamg^ os^ For he longed itfter you 
all, ai^d because that you had heard of his state of sickness, 
he yrofi very sorry ; Me chhu chon ndw timan insc^nan peih zdhir 
kormut yirfi tse dnnyaha andarq ditit me,- tim os^ chon\ tq tim 



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SYNTAX^ 147 

eliMt Uh me dttimati ; tq ihiiaa chke chants kaldmas peth \amal 
karmats^ I liave made knowiL Thy Name to those men whom 
Thou gavest me out of the world; they were Thine, and 
Thou hast given them to Me; and they haye kept Thy 
Word. 



(e) Conjunctive and Adverbial Participles, . 

201. The conjunctive participle is indeclinable. It is 
used to oonnect the different members of a sentence having 
the same nominative, and in this way obviates the use of the 
copulative conjunction. It therefore takes the place of 
the verb and a conjunction. It iinpHes the completion of 
the action denoted by it priOT to another action denoted by 
a subsequent verb. It may be rendered in li&glish by 
" having done, said," etc., or by " and " with thfe verb. Bar 
dit hhar natadn (proverb), EOaving shut the door, the ass 
dances, or The ass shuts the door and dances; WS/v wuehhit 
gatshi ndv trawav^ (proverb). It is proper, having (first) 
observed the wind, to loose the boat; Shungit hang dapav^ 
(proverb). Having gone to deep to cidl the bang (the 
Muhammad&n call to prayers) ; Taki yih kenh nUon ndto het 
malis mangiu m diyiva toM, That whatsoever, h^bving taken 
My Name, ye shall ask of the Father, He may give it you ; 
Shamsher kadit yoUhun zipananpdn tndn, Having draiT^n (his) 
sword, he was about (he desired) to kill himdelf. 

292, The form of the conjunctive participle is always 
used with the verb hekwi^ to be able; as, Bo chhumva yim 
mioni dott chhiva wancm zi timan nish ma khotsiu yim hadanas 
chhi qaU kardn tq tau pcUa chhi nq heyi kenh kdrit hekdn, I say 
unto you who are My friends, Fear not them who kill the 
body, and after that are able to do nothing nwre;. Km chhu 
zi amis haiwdnas eot^ heki Jang karitf Who ciui make war 
with this beast? Pa« timau irov »al tq gadam. handi kasratq 



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148 KASHMIR! GRAMMAR. 

soti hiuhuh nq zdl kharit, Therefore they cast the net, and 
with the mtdtitude of fishes they were not able to draw 
the net. 

293. It is sometimes used where we might have expected 
the active participle; as, Yuth nq he-khabar poth yit tohi 
shungit wuckhivaj Lest coming (having come) tmexpectedly, 
he should find you sleeping ; Tq heyi yit vmchhin tim shungit. 
And again having come, He found them sleeping ; Yeli qs^ 
shungit o«^, When we were sleeping; Me wani yimq hatha 
tohi 8dt^ adt tohiy These things I spoke unto you, being wilh 
you. 

294. It is sometimes used where we might have expected 
the past participle; as, Yeli HerodUa/n su hdzir karun yoteh 
tami rots os Patrua doyau hdnkalau aof^ gandit don sipdhan 
manzhdg shtmgit, When Herod desired to bring him forth, 
that same night, Peter, bound with two chains, was sleeping 
between two soldiers ; Tq fatim dit farmovun timan kya Ukhit 
chhu nq zi midnis garas yiyi sdrien qaumcm ha^di *ibddatuk gara 
wananaf And He taught and said unto them. Is it not 
written. My house shall be called a house of prayer for (of) 
all nations ? Tq kitdh muUarit laban so jdi ytUi Ukhit oa, And 
having opened the book. He found the place where it w€w 
written ; Zi tuhqnd^ ndw chhi dsmdnas, peth likhit^ For your 
names are written in heaven. 

295. This form is sometimes used with a second verb, 
which agrees with the noun, but which often serves only to 
intensify the meaning of the conjunctive participle ; some- 
times the two verbs together form a compound with a 
distinct meaning. Pas ehoni dachan achh ai tse khunt khed- 
wanuk hdHs dsi tq kadit tshunun su trdwit dur. Therefore if 
thy right eye cause thee to stumble, pluck it out and cast 
it from thee ; Tq m peau wasH^ And it fell ; Tau pata chhu 
dapdn, panania garas andar gatsha pot phtrit. Then he says, 
I will return to my own house ; Bo ehhus xhon farlf kardn zi 



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SYNTAX. 149 

tse thatoit yim ch%z dAnahan ta gatilan nisk Ichatit lekin shur^en 
peth harit zahir, I thank Thee that Thou didst hide these 
things from the wise and prudent, and didst reveal them 
unto babes. (The second person of the past tense of the 
verb with the pronominal afi&x -t must be distinguished from 
the conjunctiye participle.) 



(/) The Infinitive. 

296. The infinitive signifies the action denoted by the 
verb without any direct reference to the agent or the time. 
It is reaUy a verbal noun, and as such is constantly used in 
Kashmiri. 

297. It is governed by another noun or pronoun in the 
possessive case; as, Am!^ har haikcU ndpak harantik ^ofd. He 
endeavoured to defile the temple; Zandni hund amn chhui 
mardaa manzimyar (proverb), A woman's laugh is a go-between 
to the man ; Zandna chhe praaani wizi taa^a hardn (proverb), 
A woman at the time of travail repents ; Zandni hund ydwun 
gandun ta ehhdvmn; weihi htmd ydunm wubaldumn; wiri hund 
ydwun tah ddwun; marda mnd ydwun dan (proverb), The 
woman's adornment is putting on jewels and dress; the 
river's adornment is casting up waves ; the willow's adorn- 
ment is cutting off the branches; the man's adornment is 
wealth ; Ohdnia hdhaa ekku na pdh dinuh hajat (proverb). Tour 
(thy) cabbage has no need of cooking. 

298. It may be used as a nominative to a verb, or 
governed by a preposition. KoU tjhunun chhu dsdn^ tq hhdrun 
mushhil (proverb). To throw into the stream is easy, and to 
take out difficult ; Yih hata chhu na hhenas Zdtg, This food is 
not fit to eat ; Yih karun chhu nq tdhi mtimdmh^ It is not proper 
for you to do this ; Khuddwand Teeu^ sanzq hatha ydd thawani 
zarur zi tam^ dop diun chhu hena hhota mubdrah^ It is necessary 



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loO eashmibI grammar. 

to remember the worfls of tEe Lord Jesus that He said, It 
is more blessed to give than to take. 

299. The inflected infinitive is frequently used to denote 
the object of an action. Bd chbus zamtnoB peth ndr ddni dmut, 
I am come to cast fire upon the earth; Toh^ ckhina gwrndn 
Tcaran zi ho chhus zamtnas peth mlh karani dmtU f Do you sup- 
pose that I am come to make peace on the earth ? 

300. The infinitive is sometimes used with the verb 
" to be," like the Latin gerund, to denote necessity or obliga- 
tion ; as, Akhir chhu dtci doha marun tq sdroi kenh chhu trdwU 
gatshdn^ At last one must die {mariendum e^} and leave 
everything. 

301. In the case of nominals, the infinitive always agrees 
with its noun in gender ; as, Luh harun chhu gundh^ It is sin 
to covet ; Lekin nehi tq sakhdwat haranf ma nuuihrdmm, But to 
do good and to distribute forget not. 



(2) Passive Voice, 

302. The passive voice of the verb in Kae&mlri is very 
regular ; it will be suffi<aent, therefore, to give some examplos 
of its use. Yuth guris yiyi ratana wag Uuth paid hdr&bar (pro- 
verb). As a horse's (to a horse) bridle is held^ so he will go 
exactly; Tq iarddr hdhinan tq faqthan hindi aiha tuloL ftetha 
tahli/tq mdrana yima. And from the chief priests and scribes 
(at the hand of) I shall sufier much, and I shall be killed ; 
Agar kanh: shamahera soti chhu mdrdn zarur ckk» zL sah yiyi 
shamshera sixtoi mdrana. If any one kills with the sword, with 
the sword must he be killed ; Tim nq Hmau dfatau aot^ mdrana 
08^ dmat\ Who had not been killed by these plagues; Tq 
me boz timan hund shumdr yiman peth muhr karana dyi, And I 
heard the number of those who were sealed (upon whom a 
seal was made). . 



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STHTAX. ISI 

7. Adverbs, 

303. There is no definite position invariably observed 
for adverbs in a sentence; generally they are placed near 
the words they qualify; as» Wara wara paJdii, Go slowly; 
Saruf chhu pcJcdn hul hul, The snake goes crookedly. 

304. The word ma, not, used with the imperative instead 
of nq^ is always nsed before the verb ; as, Ts a ma har khun^ 
Thou shalt not kill ; Ta g ma kar zind, Thou shalt not commit 
adultery; Tih ma kariu gumdn, zi ho ds iauret ya naUyan 
ham hitdh zdy*a Jcarani^ Suppose not that I came to destroy 
the Law or the book of the prophets. 

305. The negative nq is generally used after the verb, 
almost invariably after the verb " to be ) " as, Bodsnq zdy'a 
karani^ I came not to destroy ; Bo cAAuc jm taa nod diwdn^ I 
do not call him ; Mion gwr chhu nq yeti. My horse is not here. 
The na in an interrogative may come before the verb; as, 
Tih nd ehhe tihqnz hitdh f Is not this their book ? Nq tihanz 
chhe nq, No ; it is not theirs. 

306. A repetition of words may alter the meaning or 
intensify it; ak ah, one by one, or, every one; ddha d^ha^ 
day by day ; tqhdn tqhdn, quickly ; tfdra trora, slowly. 

8. Prepositions. 

307. PrepojsitionB are used with the nouns they govern, 
and always after them, not istometimes before and sometimes 
after, as in Hindust^nL Padis tal iungul (proverb), A live 
coal under the foot ; Pdni ru$t ddm hhoiid zi ndni twt tikw 
hhasif (proverb). Will rice grow up without water, that a 
child should grow up without a grandmother ? Chdni shara 
nishi rachnam Khuddi ! May Gk>d preserve me from thy 
wickedness ! 

308. The Persian and Arabic prepositions are used more 



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152 KASHMIR! GRAMMAR. 

by the Musalmans than by the ^indus, and amongst the 
Musalmans those who know and speak Persian nse them 
most frequently. The Persian preposition harde^ with the 
word Khudd in the phrase, Barae Khudd, For God's sake, is 
constantly heard everywhere. 

309. It would seem that all the prepositions that govern 
the genitive case are derived from nouns. Nahhq, near, is 
from naJch, the shoulder, and means literally "by the 
shoulder ; " nakha tal, close by, means literally " under the 
shoulder ; " ndtra, for, for the sake of, is from ndw, a name, 
and means literally "for the name of;" so, khotirq from 
hhdtir ; sahahq from aahah ; tarafq from taraf, etc. 

310. The same preposition may govern two or more cases; 
but generally it has then a different meaning in each case. 
Sot^^ meaning "by means of," may take the genitive or 
ablative case; and, meaning "with," "alongside," the 
locative case ; as, Sah au hayahdnas andar Shaitdnq sandi sot^ 
dzmdwanq tq jangalkin jdntcaran sot^ os rozdn^ He was tempted 
in the wilderness by Satan, and was staying with wild beasts. 

311. The preposition niah is often used for nisM, but 
generally the case of the noun will show whether it means 
"to," or "near," or "from;" as, 8uk chhu gatshdn ahdhraa 
niahf He is going to, or near, the city ; but, Su chhu gatshdn 
shahrq nish, or better niahi, He is going from the city. 

312. Proper nouns are not inflected with nish, but they 
take the q with niahi ; as, Suh chhu rozdn Sopur niah ya Shdh- 
bdd nish, He lives near Sopur, or Shahbad; but, Suh chhu 
yiwdn yd Sopurq nishi yd Shdhbddq niahi, He is coming either 
from Sopur or from Shahbad. 

9. Conjunctions. 

313. The conjunction ti, or tih, can generally be easily 
distinguished from the pronoun tih. Yas chhu taa yiyi dina tq 
yas, nq chhu taa yiyi ti tih hina yih taa chhu^ To him who hath 



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SYNTAX. 153 

to him shall be given, and to him who hath not from him 
shall be also taken away that which he hath. 

314. The following conjunctions are worthy of notice : 
Ki fia, or ; Ckhalana mal ehhud atsan hi na nerdn f (proverb), 
Does filth come or go with washing ? Yd , , , na tq^ either 
... or; Yd pur na tq dur (proverb), Either altogether or 
away; Yd taalun na tq tadlun (proverb), Either flee or 
endure. Na , , . tq na, neither . . . nor; Dobi sund hun, 
na garuh tq nq gathuk (proverb). The washerman's dog 
belongs neither to the house nor to the ghat. T» . . . ti, 
also . . . also, or, whether ... or; Dog dit ti hdraw, dog 
het ti hdraw (proverb), Whether he has given a blow or 
received a blow, he cries. Ti na . . . ti na, neither . . . 
nor ; Khcja, tea ti ffih na, ta boh ti samakhai na zaf (proverb), 
O khoja, neither wilt thou come (to me), nor shall I meet 
thee evermore ! 

10. Interjections. 

315. Kashmiris are particular about the interjections 
they use. Equals are addressed as " brother " or " sister," 
hatahd or hatabin ; or as *' sir," hatasq^ the -sq representing 
either the masc. aahib or the fem. adhiha. 

316. Haz or hazrat is always used by MuhammadSns in 
addressing MuhammadS,n religious teachers and leaders, and 
often other Muhammadan persons of position as well ; ahdh 
is not so commonly used as hazrat^ though it is used to 
Muhammadan officials. 

11. Persian in KashmIri. 

317. Persian having been used in Kashmir for about 
three hundred years, and during most of that time as the 
court language and the tongue of the rulers, land being the 
language now generally used in official correspondence by 



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154 KASHMIBI GRAMMAB. 

both Hindns and Muhammad&ns, it would naturally be 
expected that many Persian and Arabic words, and even 
Persian phrases, should be found in modem Kashmiri, 
especially as spoken by Muhammadans. The following 
extracts will illustrate this : — 

Be-kdr chhu himdr (proverb), The man without work is ill. 
Be-kar cTihu wakll-i-har darhdr (proverb), An idle man is the 

wakll of every darbar. 
BuJcchi hcUdl tq hdr hardm (proverb), Th^ bundle lawful and 

the cowrie unlawful. 
BuMMri gayi uasur-i-khdna (proverb). The fireplace is the 

cancer of the house. 
** Ddahtamj ddsJiiam,'^ chhu na hdk&r ; *' ddram, danjm^ chhuk 

hakdr (proverb), " I had, I had," is not necessary ; " I 

have, I have," is necessary. 
Qari manz chhu garydl, dam ghanimcU ast (proverb), At the 

hour the striker, breath is gain. 
Chir, zandna, tq shamsher, yim trenatcai chhi he-wafd (proverb), 

A horse, a woman, and a sword, — ^these very three are 

faithless. 
Haklmaa tq hakimas nishi rachhtam Khuddyo t (proverb), Pre- 

ser\^e me, O God, from the doctor and the ruler I 
HaldlM hisdh tq hardmas azab (proverb). Beckoning for the 

lawful and punishment for the unlawful, 
Hukm-i'hdkim o hakim chhu marg-i-mafafdi (proverb), The 

command of the ruler and the doctor are (is) sudden 

death. 
'Illat gall tq 'ddat gali nq (proverb). Sickness will depart, and 

habit will not depart. 
*Ilma8 *amdl (proverb). To knowledge action (is necessary). 
'Izzatich hdr tq he-Hzzatich khdr chhe harabar (proverb). The 

cowrie of honour and the kharwar of dishonour are equal. 
Jawdnaa nq rozgdr, lokatis mqj maran} tq hudds dahan mararfi i 



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SYNTicX.- 155 

yim trenawai katha chhe adUU mtuiibat (proyerb)^ No 
livelihood for the young man, a, dying mother for the 
little one, and a dying wife for the old one, — these thjree 
things are a terrible misfortune. 

Jawdn tq jdbdn (proverb). Youth and the world. 

Kalam-zan, shamsher-zan, Jcuahti-zan chhi he-aqlas nish harabar 
(proverb), The writer, the soldier, (and) the wrestler 
are alike to the ignorant (man). 

Kdr-i-Khtidd zdni Khudd (proverb), God knows (will know) 
the work of God. 

Na " khair '* tq na " haraJeat " (proverb). Neither " good " nor 
"a blessing." 

Nekan chhu Khtbdd-i-khwh (proverb), God is plea&ed with 
the good. 

Nehndm chhe hekh-i-daulat (proverb), A good name is the root 
of wealth. 

NehOy nek kar tq had lahi pdnai ! (proverb), good (inan), do 
good, and the wicked will find his own (deserts) I 

Namdz chhe farz, tq lut chhu karz (proverb). Prayer is a duty, 
and plunder is a debt. 

Niyataa mujib diyi tas Khuddi (proverb), God will give him 
according to his motive. 

Pir nq hod ; yci^n hod (proverb), The plr [saint] (is) not great ; 
credulity (is) great. 

Boghan o zdfardn az Pdmpur, sag az Leiajpur, hrmj az Nij^r^ 
harra az Nandapur, pattu o mahl uz SopuTy mong az 
ErdlapuVy drad az Khdmpur, shir az Shddipur, angur az 
Bepur (a common saying), Ghl and saffron from Pampiir, 
vegetables from Letapnr, rice from Nipiir, lamb from 
Nandapiir, cloth and fish &om Sopur, dal from Eralapiir, 
flour from Khampur, milk from Shadipur, grapes from 
Repur. 

Safar chhu qdfir (proverb). The journey is an infidel. 

Sakhai diyi bar hdr tq haKhail diyi yak hdr (proverb). The 



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156 EASHH!b! aBAHMAB. 

generous man will give time (after) time, and the miser 

will give one time. 
SharaTuM aharmoi hyat (proverb), What shame is there in 

the law I 
Syud 8dda chhu ahdhzdda^ A simple Sjud (descendant of 

Mnhammad) is a prinoe. 
Tak tan tq du hu (proverb), One body and two person. 
Yd zuraw na tq hurdto (proverb). Either suffer or go. 
Zdn ehhe jahdn (proverb), Acquaintance is the world. 
Zdn na tq pacMidn na, tq *' hhala fi saldm" Neither known 

nor recognized, and " Peace, Sir Uncle." 
" Zorq, zorq" nashi zu, tq " Wdra, todra** nashi koh (proverb), 

"Quickly, quickly," wears away life, and "slowly, 

slowly," wears away a mountain. 



CHAPTER X. 

SENTENCES — ENOLISH AND KASHMIRI. 

318. What is it? Kya ehMf 
What is this? TihJcyachhuf 
"Who IB it? Kuschhuf 
Is there any one there ? Tati chhud kanh f 
There is no one, Kanh chhu na. 
It is I, Boh chhua. 
Is it he? Suhchhudf 
Tes ; it is he, Ova ; m% chhu. 
Is that a man ? Suh chhud mahiniu f 
No ; it is a bear, Na ; mh chhu hdput. 
Who is calling him ? Taa kua chhu ndd diwdn f 
Has he a horse ? Taa chhud gur f 
What! has he not a horse? Kyal tas chhu na gurf 
He had a horse, Taa as gur. 



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SENTENCES — ^ENGLISH AND KASHMIbI. 157 

They had a horse, Timan ob gur. 

Have yon not a pen? Toki clihuva nq kalam f 

Who has your dog ? Tuhund hun has nish chhu f 

My dog was with your boy, Mion hmn os tuhand nechivi 

nish. 

He is a villager, 8u chhu gdmuh mahiniu. 

What are you doing ? Toh^ ley a cKhiva karan f 

Are you calling me ? Toh^ chhivd me nod diwdn f 

I do not call you, Bd chhus nq tohi ndd diwan. 

Whom do you call ? ToW leas chhivd ndd diwdn f 

I am calling him, Bd chhus taa ndd diwdn. 

He is calling me, Su chhu me ndd diwdn. 

He is eating some bread, 8u chhu tsochi hana khewdn. 

Does that man read the books that you read? Suh mahniu 

chhud tima kitdha pardn yima toh^ chhiva jpardn f 

Why does he not read good books as I do ? Suh kona chhu 

mion^ jpoth ratsa hitdha pardn f 

Why do not these men do their work well ? Tim mahniv^ 

kona panatj} kom wdra kardn f 

Because they are always quarrelling with each other, 

Tikya zi tim chhi hameaha ak akis sot^jang kardn. 

That boy always does what his father tells him, Suh 

nechu chhu hamesha tih kardn yih tasund mol tas chhu wandn. 
He says that it is very hot, Suh chhu wandn zi 8ktha garm 

chhu. 

Where do you go every day ? Tohi kot chhiva prath doha 

gatshdn f 

Is that gun your own ? Tohi chhuva suh handuq panun f 
I have several guns of my own. Me chhi panani kenh 

handuq. 

He is talking with me, Suh chhu me soti katha kardn. 
What is he saying to you? Suh kya chhuva tohi wandn f 
He tells me to come every day, Suh chhu me wandn zi 

prath doha yun. 



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15g 



KASHMIRI GRAMMAR. 



He does what I tell him, Tih hoh tas chhu8 wandn (i chhu 
hardn. 

As long as your brother'was here, all were well, Yotdmat 
tuhund hoi yeti 08 totdmctt os^ sari war a, 

I have more than he. Me chhu tdhandi khota ziydda. 

Is your brother at home ? Tukund hoi ehhud panani gari f 

No ; he is far from home, Na ; suh chhu gara nishi dur. 

Is that book interesting ? Soh Jdidh chhed dilchasp f 

How far is the post-office from here ? Ddh-gara kota chhu 
yeti petha dur f 

That book is on your table, Soh Jcitdh chhe tuhandis mezas 
peth. 

He writes better than his brother, Suh chhu pananis hoi 
sandi khota rut lehh&n. 

This is impossible, Tih chhu nd mumhin, 

319. Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the 
kingdom of heaven, Muhdrah chhi tim yim dilahin ghanh chhi : 
tikya zi dsmdnach pddshdhat chhe timanai hinz. 

Blessed are they that mourn : for they shall be comforted, 
Muhdrah chhi tim yim ghamgtn chhi : tikya zi tasalli lahan. 

Blessed are the meek : for they shall inherit the earth, 
Muhdrah chhi tim yim hallm chhi: tikya zi zammaTc^ Kdris 
sapanan. 

Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteous- 
ness : for they shall be filled, Muhdrah chhi tim yim rdsthdzi 
hand^ hochhihati ta treshihat^ chhi : tikyazi dauda sapanan. 

Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy, 
Muhdrah chhi tim yim rahm-dil chhi: tikya z% timan peth yiyi 
rahm karana. 

Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God, 
Muhdrak chhi tim yim rahm-dil chhi : tikya zi Khuddyas umchhan. 

Blessed are the peacemakers : for they shall be called sons 
of God, Muhdrak chhi tim yim mlh-karawan^ chhi: tikya zi 
Khuddya sand^ farzand yiyak wanana. 



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SENTENCES— ENGLISH AND KASHMIRI. 159 

Blessed are they who are persecuted for righteousness' 
sake : for theirs is the kingdom of heaven, Mubarak Mi tim 
yim rdsthdzt hindi sahaha tahUf chhu dina yiwdn: tihya zi 
dsmanach jpddshahat chhe timanai hanz. 

Blessed are ye when men shall reproach you, and per- 
secute you, and say all manner of evil against you falsely, 
for My sake, MuhdraJc cKhiva iohy yeli midni khotira pdma^ tq 
tahUf dinava, tq prat tarhach yachh hatha ajpazi sot^ tuhandis 
haqas andar wanan, 

Bejoice, and be exceeding glad : for great is your reward 
in heaven : for so persecuted they the prophets which were 
before you, Shddmdnij tq khusht kariu: tikya zi dsmdnaa peth 
chhu tuhund ajr hod: tikya zi yim paighamhar tdhi honth os^ 
timan dituk yithai poth taktif, 

320. Our Father, which art in heaven, Hallowed be Thy 
Name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, 
as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And 
forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass 
against us. And lead us not into temptation ; but deliver 
us from evil : for Thine is the kingdom, the power, and the 
glory, for ever and ever. Amen. Ai sdni mdli, yus dsmdnas 
peth chhu, Chon ndw sapanin pdk. Chon^ pddshdhat yiyin, 
Chon^ marzi yitha poth dsmdnaa peth chhe zammas peth ti sapanin, 
Sdni dohach tsot hakhsh az asi, Tq son^ qarz kar asi m^udf, yuth 
as^ ti panan^en qarzddran chhi m'udf kardn, Tq asi ma an dzmd- 
ishi andar; Balki hadas nishi rachh : tikya zi pddshdhat, tq 
qudratf tqjaldl, chhu hamesha chhonai, Amin. 



PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, LONDON AND BECCLES. 



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